pona

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See also: póna, poña, and p’óna

Ladin[edit]

Adverb[edit]

pona

  1. then; later

Synonyms[edit]


Swahili[edit]

Verb[edit]

-pona (infinitive kupona)

  1. to heal, to recover
  2. to survive

Conjugation[edit]

Conjugation of -pona
Non-finite forms
Form Positive Negative
Infinitive kupona kutopona
Simple finite forms
Positive form Singular Plural
Imperative pona poneni
Habitual hupona
Complex finite forms
Polarity Persons Persons / Classes Classes
1st 2nd 3rd / M-wa M-mi Ma Ki-vi N U Ku Pa Mu
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. / 1 Pl. / 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 / 14 15 / 17 16 18
Past
Positive nilipona
nalipona
tulipona
twalipona
ulipona
walipona
mlipona
mwalipona
alipona walipona ulipona ilipona lilipona yalipona kilipona vilipona ilipona zilipona ulipona kulipona palipona mulipona
Relative niliopona
naliopona
tuliopona
twaliopona
uliopona
waliopona
mliopona
mwaliopona
aliopona waliopona uliopona iliopona liliopona yaliopona kiliopona viliopona iliopona ziliopona uliopona kuliopona paliopona muliopona
Negative sikupona hatukupona hukupona hamkupona hakupona hawakupona haukupona haikupona halikupona hayakupona hakikupona havikupona haikupona hazikupona haukupona hakukupona hapakupona hamukupona
Present
Positive ninapona
napona
tunapona unapona mnapona anapona wanapona unapona inapona linapona yanapona kinapona vinapona inapona zinapona unapona kunapona panapona munapona
Relative ninaopona
naopona
tunaopona unaopona mnaopona anaopona wanaopona unaopona inaopona linaopona yanaopona kinaopona vinaopona inaopona zinaopona unaopona kunaopona panaopona munaopona
Negative siponi hatuponi huponi hamponi haponi hawaponi hauponi haiponi haliponi hayaponi hakiponi haviponi haiponi haziponi hauponi hakuponi hapaponi hamuponi
Future
Positive nitapona tutapona utapona mtapona atapona watapona utapona itapona litapona yatapona kitapona vitapona itapona zitapona utapona kutapona patapona mutapona
Relative nitakaopona tutakaopona utakaopona mtakaopona atakaopona watakaopona utakaopona itakaopona litakaopona yatakaopona kitakaopona vitakaopona itakaopona zitakaopona utakaopona kutakaopona patakaopona mutakaopona
Negative sitapona hatutapona hutapona hamtapona hatapona hawatapona hautapona haitapona halitapona hayatapona hakitapona havitapona haitapona hazitapona hautapona hakutapona hapatapona hamutapona
Subjunctive
Positive nipone tupone upone mpone apone wapone upone ipone lipone yapone kipone vipone ipone zipone upone kupone papone mupone
Negative nisipone tusipone usipone msipone asipone wasipone usipone isipone lisipone yasipone kisipone visipone isipone zisipone usipone kusipone pasipone musipone
Present Conditional
Positive ningepona tungepona ungepona mngepona angepona wangepona ungepona ingepona lingepona yangepona kingepona vingepona ingepona zingepona ungepona kungepona pangepona mungepona
Negative nisingepona
singepona
tusingepona
hatungepona
usingepona
hungepona
msingepona
hamngepona
asingepona
hangepona
wasingepona
hawangepona
usingepona
haungepona
isingepona
haingepona
lisingepona
halingepona
yasingepona
hayangepona
kisingepona
hakingepona
visingepona
havingepona
isingepona
haingepona
zisingepona
hazingepona
usingepona
haungepona
kusingepona
hakungepona
pasingepona
hapangepona
musingepona
hamungepona
Past Conditional
Positive ningalipona tungalipona ungalipona mngalipona angalipona wangalipona ungalipona ingalipona lingalipona yangalipona kingalipona vingalipona ingalipona zingalipona ungalipona kungalipona pangalipona mungalipona
Negative nisingalipona
singalipona
tusingalipona
hatungalipona
usingalipona
hungalipona
msingalipona
hamngalipona
asingalipona
hangalipona
wasingalipona
hawangalipona
usingalipona
haungalipona
isingalipona
haingalipona
lisingalipona
halingalipona
yasingalipona
hayangalipona
kisingalipona
hakingalipona
visingalipona
havingalipona
isingalipona
haingalipona
zisingalipona
hazingalipona
usingalipona
haungalipona
kusingalipona
hakungalipona
pasingalipona
hapangalipona
musingalipona
hamungalipona
Conditional Contrary to Fact
Positive ningelipona tungelipona ungelipona mngelipona angelipona wangelipona ungelipona ingelipona lingelipona yangelipona kingelipona vingelipona ingelipona zingelipona ungelipona kungelipona pangelipona mungelipona
General Relative
Positive niponao tuponao uponao mponao aponao waponao uponao iponao liponao yaponao kiponao viponao iponao ziponao uponao kuponao paponao muponao
Negative nisiopona tusiopona usiopona msiopona asiopona wasiopona usiopona isiopona lisiopona yasiopona kisiopona visiopona isiopona zisiopona usiopona kusiopona pasiopona musiopona
Gnomic
Positive napona twapona wapona mwapona apona wapona wapona yapona lapona yapona chapona vyapona yapona zapona wapona kwapona papona mwapona
Perfect
Positive nimepona tumepona umepona mmepona amepona wamepona umepona imepona limepona yamepona kimepona vimepona imepona zimepona umepona kumepona pamepona mumepona
"Already"
Positive nimeshapona tumeshapona umeshapona mmeshapona ameshapona wameshapona umeshapona imeshapona limeshapona yameshapona kimeshapona vimeshapona imeshapona zimeshapona umeshapona kumeshapona pameshapona mumeshapona
"Not yet"
Negative sijapona hatujapona hujapona hamjapona hajapona hawajapona haujapona haijapona halijapona hayajapona hakijapona havijapona haijapona hazijapona haujapona hakujapona hapajapona hamujapona
"If/When"
Positive nikipona tukipona ukipona mkipona akipona wakipona ukipona ikipona likipona yakipona kikipona vikipona ikipona zikipona ukipona kukipona pakipona mukipona
"If not"
Negative nisipopona tusipopona usipopona msipopona asipopona wasipopona usipopona isipopona lisipopona yasipopona kisipopona visipopona isipopona zisipopona usipopona kusipopona pasipopona musipopona
Consecutive
Positive nikapona tukapona ukapona mkapona akapona wakapona ukapona ikapona likapona yakapona kikapona vikapona ikapona zikapona ukapona kukapona pakapona mukapona
Not all possible forms are listed in the table. Transitive verbs can take object concords, relative concords can agree with all noun classes, and many other forms not commonly seen in modern Standard Swahili are absent from the table. See Appendix:Swahili verbs for more information.

Derived terms[edit]