ruga

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See also: Ruga, rugá, rugă, rugą, ruĝa, and rũga

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin rūga (a crease in the face, wrinkle).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈɹuː.ɡə/
    • (file)
  • Rhymes: -uːɡə

Noun[edit]

ruga (plural rugae)

  1. (anatomy, zootomy, botany, usually in the plural) A fold, crease or wrinkle.
    • 1980, Joseph Kenneth Jonathan, The Isotima-complex (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) (page 83)
      Female: Face subpolished, weakly rugose, rugae somewhat diverging, at sides sparsely and shallowly punctate; []
    • 1997, Thomas Pynchon, Mason & Dixon:
      the deadly water-snakes coil’d together like the Rugæ of a single great Brain, the gray and even illumination from the Sky

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Afar[edit]

Ruga (1).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈɾuɡʌ/
  • Hyphenation: ru‧ga

Noun[edit]

rúga m (plural rugaagí f)

  1. male calf
Declension[edit]
Declension of rúga
absolutive rúga
predicative rúga
subjective rugí
genitive rugí
Postpositioned forms
l-case rúgal
k-case rúgak
t-case rúgat
h-case rúgah
Derived terms[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɾuˈɡʌ/
  • Hyphenation: ru‧ga

Noun[edit]

rugá f (plural rugaagí f)

  1. female calf
Declension[edit]
Declension of rugá
absolutive rugá
predicative rugá
subjective rugá
genitive rugá
Postpositioned forms
l-case rugál
k-case rugák
t-case rugát
h-case rugáh

References[edit]

  • E. M. Parker; R. J. Hayward (1985) An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN, page 183
  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis)

Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ruga, from Proto-Indo-European *krewp- (to become encrusted), extension of *krew- (scab).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈru.ɡa/
  • Rhymes: -uɡa
  • Hyphenation: rù‧ga

Noun[edit]

ruga f (plural rughe)

  1. wrinkle, line

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Kikuyu[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ruga (infinitive kũruga)

  1. to cook

Derived terms[edit]

(Nouns)

(Verbs)

(Proverbs)

References[edit]

  • Armstrong, Lilias E. (1940). The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Kikuyu, p. 363. Rep. 1967. (Also in 2018 by Routledge).

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *roug-ā-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁roug-h₂- (wrinkle), related to *h₁rewg- (to roar, belch), where the sense development would be "belch" → "be rugged" → "crease, wrinkle."[1] Compare ructo (I belch, bring up noisily).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rūga f (genitive rūgae); first declension

  1. (usually in the plural) a crease in the face, wrinkle
  2. (transferred sense) a crease, fold, plait, wrinkle, corrugation of any kind
    1. (sex) a female screw
Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

Inflection[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative rūga rūgae
Genitive rūgae rūgārum
Dative rūgae rūgīs
Accusative rūgam rūgās
Ablative rūgā rūgīs
Vocative rūga rūgae

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • ruga”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ruga”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • ruga in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • ruga”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ruga”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 528-29

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈru.ɡa/
  • Rhymes: -uɡa
  • Syllabification: ru‧ga

Noun[edit]

ruga f

  1. (colloquial) scolding, slating (criticism)

Declension[edit]

Verb[edit]

ruga

  1. third-person singular present of rugać

Further reading[edit]

  • ruga in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • ruga in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ruga. Doublet of rua (street).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

  • Hyphenation: ru‧ga

Noun[edit]

ruga f (plural rugas)

  1. wrinkle
  2. crease

Related terms[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Latin rogāre, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃roǵ-, ablaut of *h₃reǵ-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

a ruga (third-person singular present roagă, past participle rugat1st conj.

  1. to ask (for)
  2. (reflexive) to pray
  3. to beg, implore

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Sardinian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin rūga.

Noun[edit]

ruga f (plural rugas)

  1. street
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin eruca.

Noun[edit]

ruga f (plural rugas)

  1. caterpillar

See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

ruga

  1. inflection of rugar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

ruga

  1. resin

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of ruga
nominative sing. ruga
genitive sing. rugan
partitive sing. rugad
partitive plur. rugid
singular plural
nominative ruga rugad
accusative rugan rugad
genitive rugan rugiden
partitive rugad rugid
essive-instructive rugan rugin
translative rugaks rugikš
inessive rugas rugiš
elative rugaspäi rugišpäi
illative ? rugihe
adessive rugal rugil
ablative rugalpäi rugilpäi
allative rugale rugile
abessive rugata rugita
comitative ruganke rugidenke
prolative rugadme rugidme
approximative I ruganno rugidenno
approximative II rugannoks rugidennoks
egressive rugannopäi rugidennopäi
terminative I ? rugihesai
terminative II rugalesai rugilesai
terminative III rugassai
additive I ? rugihepäi
additive II rugalepäi rugilepäi

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “смола”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika