tāls

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See also: tals, Tals, and tåls

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *tāli- or *toli-, from Proto-Indo-European *to- (pronominal stem) (whence tas (that), q.v.) with an extra suffix, either -āli (> *tāli-) or -li(> *toli-). The adverbial forms *tāli, *tālu, *tālus seem to be older than the adjectival ones, yielding both u- and yo-stem adjectives, in competition for some time: only in the early 20th century did the u-stem form tāls become the only one in the standard language (yo-stem tāļš is still attested dialectally). Cognates include Lithuanian tolùs, Old Prussian tālis, tāls, Old Church Slavonic толи (toli, (to) that extent), толь (tolĭ, that much), толикъ (tolikŭ, that much, that big), Russian то́лько (tólʹko, only), Ukrainian ті́лько (tílʹko, only), Bulgarian то́лко (tólko, that much), Czech tolik (that much), Ancient Greek τηλίκος (tēlíkos, that old, that young, that big), Latin tālis (such). (Slavic words like Ukrainian, Russian даль (dalʹ, distance), Czech dále, dál (farther), Russian далёкий (daljókij, far, distant), Ukrainian дале́кий (dalékyj), Bulgarian дале́к (dalék), Czech daleký, Polish daleki, all from Proto-Slavic *dalekъ, *dalekъjъ, are also probably related to Latvian tāls, but their initial d remains unexplained.)[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

tāls (def. tālais, comp. tālāks, sup. vistālākais; irreg. adv. tālu)

  1. far, far away, distant (situated, living, coming from, happening in, a place which is at a relatively big distance away)
    tāls ciematsdistant village
    tāls nostūrisfar corner
    tālas pilsētas, jūrasdistant cities, seas
    tāla šalkoņadistant roar
    tālas atbalsisdistant echos
    tāla gaismadistant light
    doties tālos darbosto go to distant (= long-distance) works
    apciemot tālus draugusto visit distant friends
    sagaidīt tālus ciemiņusto expect distant visitors
    saimnieks ar visiem zirgiem un puišiem devās uz tālo plāvu, kur šķūnī sabāzts siens gulēja jau no jūlija mēnešathe farm owner, with all horses and boys (= servants), went to the far-away meadow, where the hay storned in the barn had been llying since the month of July
    Aldona cepa tortes tuvākiem un tālākiem kaimiņiem — Aldona baked pies to (our) closer and farther neighbors
    drīz vien Mazuriju durvis sāka virināt tuvi un tāli ļaudissoon people (from) near and far began to open and close the doors of Mazurija
  2. distant (without close ties; such that one does not relate to it; not familiar)
    meitai tāls un garlaicīgs šķiet viss, ko pārdzīvojusi māte, vecaistēvs...to the girl, everything that (her) mother and grandfather had experienced seemed distant and uninteresting
    Ģirts jūt, ka tas brālim arvien bijis tāls; bet vai tad brālis nevar būt brāļa draugs?Ģirts feels that that (one) was always distant to (= from) (his) brother; but can't a brother be friends with a brother (= can't two brothers be friends)?
  3. (of plans, dreams) distant (difficult to realize)
    es nevaru gulēt; miegs, īsts miegs man ir kā tāls sapnis no jaunības laikiemI can't sleep; sleep, real sleep is to me like a distant dream from (my) youth
  4. (of paths, trips) long, far (covering or reaching a large distance)
    iet tālu ceļuto go far, to go a long way (lit. to go a far way)
    tāls pārgājiens, ceļojums a far (= long) trek, trip
    tāls lidojums a far (= long) flight
    tāla ekspedīcija a far expedition (= to a distant place)
    es gāju jau dienā, jo bija tāls gabals ejamsI went also during the day, because there was a far (= long) piece (of road) to go
    priekšā tāls ceļš līdz Vladivostokai un vēl garāks līdz mājāmahead (of him), the far (= long) road to Vladivostoka and further to home
  5. (of processes, activities) far, distant, remote (executed from a distance)
    tāla mehānismu vadīšanaremote control of a mechanism
    tāli kosmiskie sakariremote spatial communication
  6. (of time periods, events) far, distant (separated from the present by a relatively long period of time)
    tāli gadsimtidistant centuries
    tāla senātne, nākotnedistant past, future
    tālie studiju gadithe distant (= old) study years
    tāli jaunības sapņidistant (= ancient) youth dreams
    tāli nākotnes plānidistant future plans
    tāls priekštecisdistant predecessor
    atcerēties tālās bērnības dienasto remember (one's) distant childhood days
    tālos, tālos aizvēstures laikos jūras viļņi skalojušies pāri Ķekavai, Baldonei, Jaunjelgavaiin the far, far prehistoric times, the sea waves washed over Ķekava, Baldone, Jaunjelgava
    atminos senas dienas un tālus notikumus, MindaugI remember the old days and the distant (= old, ancient) events, Mindaugs
  7. far, distant (having little in common)
    tāla radniecībadistant relation
    tāli radidistant relatives
    savstarpēji tālas augu sugasmutually distant (= distantly related) plant species
    pat vistālākajās valodu grupās var atrast apbrīnojami līdzīgus vārduseven in the most distant (= distantly related) language families it is possible to find surprisingly similar words
  8. broad, wide (covering a large distance, territory)
    tas bija tālā apkārtnē nedzirdēts gadījums, ka meita bez laulāšanas aiziet pie puišait was unheard of in the distant (= broad, wide) surroundings that a girl would marry a guy without a wedding

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (of "distant, not familiar"): svešs

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “tāls”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7