tīrs

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See also: tirs

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the past tense stem *tīr- of an earlier verb *tirt (to rub), from Proto-Baltic *tir-, from the zero grade *tr̥- of Proto-Indo-European *ter- (to rub, to rub by turning, twisting; to turn, to drill), whence also Latvian trīt (to whet), and also Russian тереть (teret', to rub, to scrub), dialectal тирать (tirat'). Cognates include Lithuanian tyrùs (bright, light, clean; fresh; without vegetation, empty).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

tīrs (def. tīrais, comp. tīrāks, sup. vistīrākais; adv. tīri)

  1. (of objects) clean (which is not dirty, has no stains, no undesirable substances, etc.)
    tīrs apģērbs, galdauts‎ ― clean clothing, tablecloth
    tīra glāze‎ ― clean glass
    tīra grīda‎ ― clean floor
    tīra istaba‎ ― clean room
    tīrs ciemats‎ ― clean village
    Kārlis nolēma uzklāt gultai tīrus palagus‎ ― Kārlis decided to put clean sheets on the bed
    lai turētu mājas arvien tīras, lapas sagrāba un sakrāva orēs‎ ― in order to keep the house(s) always clean, he gathered all the leaves and shoveled them into carts
  2. (of living beings, their bodies) clean (such that it has no dirt, stains, etc. on any body part, clothes, etc.)
    tīras rokas‎ ― clean hands
    tīri mati‎ ― clean hair
    tīrs suns‎ ― clean dog
    strēlnieki dzied klusu, sejas tīras, skūtas‎ ― the riflemen sing quiently, (their) faces clean, shaven
    kaķis ir vienmēr vientuļš apdzīvotā mājā, vienmēr skaists un tīrs‎ ― the cat is always lonely in an inhabited house, always nice and clean
  3. (of substances) pure, clean (not containing any unnecessary or undesirable impurities)
    tīrs zelts‎ ― pure gold
    tīrs parafīns‎ ― pure paraffin
    tīrs māls‎ ― pure clay
    ķīmiski tīrs benzols‎ ― chemically pure benzene
    tīrs ūdens, gaiss‎ ― clean water, air
    ūdens silts un tīrs; katru akmentiņu un lielāku smilšu graudu var skaidri cauri redzēt‎ ― the water is warm and clean; every little stone or larger grain of sand can be clearly seen through (it)
  4. (of technology) clean (such that it does not pollute the environment)
    jauniem enerģijas avotiem jāatbilst divām pamatprasībām: tiem jābūt spēcīgiem un ekoloģiski tīriem‎ ― new energy sources must meet two basic requirements: they must be powerful and ecologically clean
  5. clean, empty, clear (in which something is not; which is not filled with, taken by, something; from which something was removed)
    no nezālēm tīra augsne‎ ― soil clean of weeds
    tīrā papuve‎ ― the clean fallow (= with no crops)
    tīra papīra lapa‎ ― clean, empty page (= with nothing written on it)
    tīra tāfele‎ ― clean, empty blackboard
    tīrs audekls‎ ― clean, empty canvas
    debesis bija tīras, neviena mākonīša‎ ― the sky was clear, not a single little cloud
  6. (of money, resources) net (calculated by excluding certain component elements)
    tīrais ienākums‎ ― net income
    tīrais laiks‎ ― net time
    tīrā produkcija‎ ― net production
    vecais aprēķināja, ka saņēmis trīspadsmit latus un deviņdesmit vienu santīmu un, ja atskaitīja ceļa naudu, tad tīrā peļņa tik un tā iznāca vairāk nekā divpadsmit latu‎ ― the old man calculated that, having received thirty lats and ninety-one cents, if one deducts the travel money, then the net profit would come to more than twentyt lats
  7. (of living beings) pure (such that no other species are involved in its origin)
    tīras koku un krūmu sugas‎ ― pure tree and shrub species
    tīras rases‎ ― pure races
    tīras vietējās bites‎ ― pure local bees
    tīras asinis‎ ― pure blood (e.g., horse)
  8. (of people) pure, genuine, real (such that no other ethnic or social group, no other kinds of people are involved in a person's origin)
    tīrs latvietis‎ ― a pure, genuine Latvian
    tīrs aristokrāts‎ ― a pure, genuine aristocrat
    tīrs pilsētnieks‎ ― a real, genuine city person
  9. (of topics) pure (existing by itself, without depending on others; not applied, not used for some goal outside of itself)
    tīrā matemātika‎ ― pure mathematics
    tīrā zinātne‎ ― pure science
    tīrā māksla‎ ― pure art
  10. clean, pure, perfect (fully meeting a certain set of requirements, criteria, ideals, etc.)
    tīrs tonis‎ ― pure tone
    tīrs soprāns — pure soprano
    baltu gaismu sadalot spektrā, iegūst tīrās spektrālās krāsas‎ ― splitting white light into a spectrum, one obtains pure spectral colors
    Annas Sakses valoda bija vicaur gramatiski pareiza, tīra un labskanīga‎ ― Anna Sakse's language was grammatically correct, pure and well-sounding throughout
    tie bija jauni cilvēki, ar labu apņemšanos, tīrām biogrāfijām un teicamiem raksturojumiem‎ ― these were young people, comitted to good, with clean, pure biographies and excellent characters
    nav brīnums, ka jūsu mājā jaunā paaudze runā tīru latviešu valodu‎ ― no wonder that the young generation in your house speaks pure Latvian
  11. (of people, their behavior) pure, innocent (which corresponds consistently to certain moral norms or ideals)
    tīra sirdsapziņa‎ ― a clean conscience
    tīra dzīve‎ ― a clean, pure life
    tīras jūtas‎ ― pure, innocent feelings
    tīrs prieks‎ ― pure, innocent joy
    tīra dvēsele‎ ― pure, innocent soul
    tīra sirds‎ ― pure heart
    domāju par Anitu, kāda viņa bija tad, kad tu viņu atvedi pie mums: tāda tīra, skaidra kā bērns‎ ― I thought about Anita as she was when you brought her to us; pure and clear (= innocent) as a child
    tādai vajag būt mīlestībai: tīrai; lai nav ko kaunēties‎ ― such love should be: pure; so that there is nothing to be ashamed of
    viņas smiekli ir tik tīri kā bērnam‎ ― her laugh is as pure as a child's
    ja es vēl ilgāk klusēšu, spēle vairs nebūs tīra, Sala domāja‎ ― if I keep silent any longer, the game will not be clean (= honest) anymore
  12. (usually definite forms) pure, sheer, perfect (which has all the relevant features and characteristics of its type)
    tīrā patiesība‎ ― the pure, sheer, naked truth
    tīrā laime‎ ― pure, sheer happiness
    tīrā nejaušība‎ ― sheer coincidence
    tīrās muļķības‎ ― pure, utter nonsense, stupidity
    “jūs vēl esat tik jauniņa”, viņš sacīja, “vēl tīrais bērns”‎ ― you are still so young, he said, still just (lit. a pure) child

Declension[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “tīrs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7