τίθημι

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *dʰé-dʰeh₁-ti, reduplicated present from *dʰeh₁- (to put, place). Cognates include Latin faciō, Sanskrit दधाति (dadhāti), Old Armenian դնեմ (dnem), Old English dōn (English do).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Verb[edit]

τῐ́θημῐ (títhēmi)

  1. I put, place, set
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 21.405
      τόν ῥ᾽ ἄνδρες πρότεροι θέσαν ἔμμεναι οὖρον ἀρούρης
      tón rh᾽ ándres próteroi thésan émmenai oûron aroúrēs
      [a stone] that men of former days had set to be the boundary mark of a field
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 14.518
      τίθει δ᾽ ἄρα οἱ πυρὸς ἐγγὺς εὐνήν
      títhei d᾽ ára hoi puròs engùs eunḗn
      he sprang up and placed a bed for Odysseus near the fire
    • 431 BCE, Euripides, Medea 1160
      χρυσοῦν τε θεῖσα στέφανον ἀμφὶ βοστρύχοις
      khrusoûn te theîsa stéphanon amphì bostrúkhois
      setting the gold crown around her locks
    1. in phrases
      1. (with πόδα (póda)) I plant the foot, i.e. walk, run
        • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, The Eumenides 294
          τίθησιν ὀρθὸν ἢ κατηρεφῆ πόδα
          títhēsin orthòn ḕ katērephê póda
          she is in action or at rest
      2. (with ἐν χειρί, ἐν χερσίν (en kheirí, en khersín)) I put something into someone's hands
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.441
          Ὀδυσσεὺς πατρὶ φίλῳ ἐν χερσὶ τίθει
          Odusseùs patrì phílōi en khersì títhei
          Odysseus placed her in the arms of her dear father
      3. (with παῖδα (paîda), υἱὸν (huiòn), etc. ὑπὸ ζώνῃ (hupò zṓnēi)) I have a child put under my girdle, i.e. I concieve
        • 7th-6th centuries BC, Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite 282
          ἢν δέ τις εἴρηταί σε καταθνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, / ἥ τις σοι φίλον υἱὸν ὑπὸ ζώνῃ θέτο μήτηρ
          ḕn dé tis eírētaí se katathnētôn anthrṓpōn, / hḗ tis soi phílon huiòn hupò zṓnēi théto mḗtēr
          And if any mortal man ask you who got your dear son beneath her girdle
      4. (with ἐν ὄμμασι (en ómmasi)) I set before one's eyes
        • 522 BCE – 443 BCE, Pindar, Nemean Ode 8.43
          μαστεύει δὲ καὶ τέρψις ἐν ὄμμασι θέσθαι πιστόν
          masteúei dè kaì térpsis en ómmasi thésthai pistón
          yet delight also seeks to set a trustworthy pledge before the eyes
      5. (with ψῆφον (psêphon)) I give my vote or opinion, I vote
        • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 816
          ἀνδροθνῆτας Ἰλίου φθορὰς / ἐς αἱματηρὸν τεῦχος οὐ διχορρόπως / ψήφους ἔθεντο
          androthnêtas Ilíou phthoràs / es haimatēròn teûkhos ou dikhorrhópōs / psḗphous éthento
          they cast into the bloody urn their ballots for the murderous destroying of Ilium
      6. (with ἐν στήθεσσι (en stḗthessi), ἐν φρεσί (en phresí), etc.) I put or plant in one's heart
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 13.732
          ἄλλῳ δ᾽ ἐν στήθεσσι τιθεῖ νόον εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς ἐσθλόν
          állōi d᾽ en stḗthessi titheî nóon eurúopa Zeùs esthlón
          and in the breast of another Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, [he] puts a mind of understanding
      7. (with τὰ ὅπλα (tà hópla))
        1. I rest arms, halt
          • 460 BCE – 395 BCE, Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War 4.44.1
            ὑπεχώρησαν πρὸς τὸν λόφον καὶ ἔθεντο τὰ ὅπλα
            hupekhṓrēsan pròs tòn lóphon kaì éthento tà hópla
            and they retired to the summit of the ridge, where they grounded their arms
        2. I bear arms, fight
          • 384 BCE – 322 BCE, Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians 8.5
            ὃς [] μὴ θῆται τὰ ὅπλα μηδὲ μεθ᾽ ἑτέρων, ἄτιμον εἶναι
            hòs [] mḕ thêtai tà hópla mēdè meth᾽ hetérōn, átimon eînai
            whoever [] did not join forces with either party was to be disenfranchised
        3. I lay down arms, surrender
        4. (with εὖ ()) I keep arms in good order
          • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Cyropaedia 4.5.3
            τὰ δ᾽ ἐν ταῖς σκηναῖς αὐτοὶ ὁρᾶτε καὶ τὰ ὅπλα εὖ τίθεσθε
            tà d᾽ en taîs skēnaîs autoì horâte kaì tà hópla eû títhesthe
            but look out for what may happen in the tents and have your arms stacked conveniently
      8. (with τὰ γόνατα (tà gónata)) I kneel
        • New Testament, The Gospel of Mark 15:19
          τιθέντες τὰ γόνατα προσεκύνουν αὐτῷ
          tithéntes tà gónata prosekúnoun autôi
          bowing their knees they did homage to him
    2. I deposit
      • 390 BCE – 322 BCE, Hyperides, Against Athenogenes 5
        θεὶς ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν τὰς τετταράκοντα μνᾶς
        theìs epì tḕn trápezan tàs tettarákonta mnâs
        I deposited the forty minas in the bank
    3. I pay
    4. I put down in writing
      • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, Laws 793b
        τε καὶ κειμένων καὶ τῶν ἔτι θησομένων
        te kaì keiménōn kaì tôn éti thēsoménōn
        both those already enacted in writing and those still to be enacted
    5. I bury
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 23.83
        μὴ ἐμὰ σῶν ἀπάνευθε τιθήμεναι ὀστέ᾽ Ἀχιλλεῦ
        mḕ emà sôn apáneuthe tithḗmenai osté᾽ Akhilleû
        Lay not my bones apart from thine, Achilles
    6. I offer, set before
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 23.263
        ἱππεῦσιν μὲν πρῶτα ποδώκεσιν ἀγλά᾽ ἄεθλα θῆκε
        hippeûsin mèn prôta podṓkesin aglá᾽ áethla thêke
        For swift charioteers first he set forth goodly prizes
      • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, Laws 719a
        ὁ δὲ προάγων λόγος ὅ γέ μοι ἀπείργασται, βούλομαι ὑμῖν εἰς τὸ μέσον αὐτὸ θεῖναι.
        ho dè proágōn lógos hó gé moi apeírgastai, boúlomai humîn eis tò méson autò theînai.
        Now I wish to put before you what I take to be the result of the foregoing argument.
    7. I assign, award
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 24.57
        εἰ δὴ ὁμὴν Ἀχιλῆϊ καὶ Ἕκτορι θήσετε τιμήν
        ei dḕ homḕn Akhilêï kaì Héktori thḗsete timḗn
        if indeed ye gods will vouchsafe like honour to Achilles and to Hector
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 18.5
        Ἀρναῖος δ᾽ ὄνομ᾽ ἔσκε: τὸ γὰρ θέτο πότνια μήτηρ ἐκ γενετῆς:
        Arnaîos d᾽ ónom᾽ éske: tò gàr théto pótnia mḗtēr ek genetês:
        Arnaeus was his name, for this name his honored mother had given him at his birth.
    8. (often with νόμον (nómon)) I lay down, enact
      • 497 BCE – 405 BCE, Sophocles, Electra 580
        ὅρα τιθεῖσα τόνδε τὸν νόμον βροτοῖς / μὴ πῆμα σαυτῇ καὶ μετάγνοιαν τιθῇς.
        hóra titheîsa tónde tòn nómon brotoîs / mḕ pêma sautêi kaì metágnoian tithêis.
        See that by laying down such a law for men, you do not lay down trouble and remorse for yourself.
      • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta 15.2
        ἔθηκε γὰρ θύειν μὲν βασιλέα πρὸ τῆς πόλεως τὰ δημόσια ἅπαντα
        éthēke gàr thúein mèn basiléa prò tês póleōs tà dēmósia hápanta
        He ordained that the King shall offer all the public sacrifices on behalf of the state
      1. (middle) I agree upon
        • 384 BCE – 322 BCE, Demosthenes, Against Phaenippus 13
          ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς συγχωρήσαντες ἐθέμεθα
          hēmîn autoîs sunkhōrḗsantes ethémetha
          we fix upon another [day] by mutual agreement
      2. (of a legal document) I execute
    9. I establish, institute
      • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 845
        ἀγῶνας θέντες ἐν πανηγύρει βουλευσόμεσθα
        agônas théntes en panēgúrei bouleusómestha
        we shall establish open debates and consider
    10. I order, ordain, cause to happen
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 8.465
        οὕτω νῦν Ζεὺς θείη, [] οἴκαδέ τ᾽ ἐλθέμεναι
        hoútō nûn Zeùs theíē, [] oíkadé t᾽ elthémenai
        so may Zeus grant, [] that I may reach my home
      • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1673
        ἐγὼ καὶ σὺ θήσομεν κρατοῦντε τῶνδε δωμάτων καλῶς.
        egṑ kaì sù thḗsomen kratoûnte tônde dōmátōn kalôs.
        I and you will be masters of this house and order it aright.
      1. (in board games) I place (pieces)
        • 380 BCE, Plato, The Republic 604c
          ὥσπερ ἐν πτώσει κύβων πρὸς τὰ πεπτωκότα τίθεσθαι τὰ αὑτοῦ πράγματα
          hṓsper en ptṓsei kúbōn pròs tà peptōkóta títhesthai tà hautoû prágmata
          as it were in the fall of the dice, to determine the movements of our affairs
  2. (copulative) I make, cause to be
    1. (with attributive substantive)
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.290
        εἰ δέ μιν αἰχμητὴν ἔθεσαν θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες
        ei dé min aikhmētḕn éthesan theoì aièn eóntes
        If the gods who exist for ever made him a spearman
      1. (middle) I cause to be my
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 21.72
          ἀλλ᾽ ἐμὲ ἱέμενοι γῆμαι θέσθαι τε γυναῖκα
          all᾽ emè hiémenoi gêmai thésthai te gunaîka
          save only as desiring to wed me and make me your wife
    2. (with infinitive)
      • 431 BCE, Euripides, Medea 718
        παύσω γέ σ᾽ ὄντ᾽ ἄπαιδα καὶ παίδων γονὰς σπεῖραί σε θήσω
        paúsō gé s᾽ ónt᾽ ápaida kaì paídōn gonàs speîraí se thḗsō
        I will put an end to your childlessness and cause you to beget children
    3. I regard, consider as; I hold, reckon that
      • 497 BCE – 405 BCE, Sophocles, Electra 1270
        δαιμόνιον αὐτὸ τίθημ᾽ ἐγώ.
        daimónion autò títhēm᾽ egṓ.
        I regard it as a work of the divine.
      • 442 BCE, Sophocles, Antigone 1166
        τὰς γὰρ ἡδονὰς ὅταν προδῶσιν ἄνδρες, οὐ τίθημ᾽ ἐγὼ ζῆν τοῦτον
        tàs gàr hēdonàs hótan prodôsin ándres, ou títhēm᾽ egṑ zên toûton
        When a man has forfeited his pleasures, I hold not that he lives
      1. I assume
        • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, Phaedo 79a
          θῶμεν οὖν βούλει, ἔφη, δύο εἴδη τῶν ὄντων;
          thômen oûn boúlei, éphē, dúo eídē tôn óntōn?
          "Now," said he, "shall we assume two kinds of existences?"
      2. I affirm
  3. I make
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 12.418
      οὔτε γὰρ ἴφθιμοι Λύκιοι Δαναῶν ἐδύναντο / τεῖχος ῥηξάμενοι θέσθαι παρὰ νηυσὶ κέλευθον
      oúte gàr íphthimoi Lúkioi Danaôn edúnanto / teîkhos rhēxámenoi thésthai parà nēusì kéleuthon
      For neither could the mighty Lycians break the wall of the Danaans, and make a path to the ships
    1. (in periphrasis)
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.116
        εἴ ποθεν ἐλθὼν μνηστήρων τῶν μὲν σκέδασιν κατὰ δώματα θείη
        eí pothen elthṑn mnēstḗrōn tôn mèn skédasin katà dṓmata theíē
        should he perchance come from somewhere and make a scattering of the wooers in the palace

Usage notes[edit]

The first aorist is used only in the indicative, and mostly in the singular and third-person plural.

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]