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Ancient Greek[edit]


From Proto-Indo-European *dʰé-dʰeh₁-, reduplicated present from *dʰeh₁- (to put, place). Cognates include Latin faciō, Sanskrit दधाति (dadhāti), Old Armenian դնեմ (dnem), Old English dōn (English do).



Mark the vowel length of the ambiguous vowels ί and ι by adding a macron after each one if it is long, or a breve if it is short. By default, Module:grc-pronunciation assumes it is short if unmarked.
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τίθημι (títhēmi)

  1. I put, place, set
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 21.405
      τόν ῥ᾽ ἄνδρες πρότεροι θέσαν ἔμμεναι οὖρον ἀρούρης
      [a stone] that men of former days had set to be the boundary mark of a field
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 14.518
      τίθει δ᾽ ἄρα οἱ πυρὸς ἐγγὺς εὐνήν
      he sprang up and placed a bed for Odysseus near the fire
    • 431 BCE, Euripides, Medea 1160
      χρυσοῦν τε θεῖσα στέφανον ἀμφὶ βοστρύχοις
      setting the gold crown around her locks
    1. in phrases
      1. (with πόδα (póda)) I plant the foot, i.e. walk, run
      2. (with ἐν χειρί, ἐν χερσίν (en kheirí, en khersín)) I put something into someone's hands
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.441
          Ὀδυσσεὺς πατρὶ φίλῳ ἐν χερσὶ τίθει
          Odysseus placed her in the arms of her dear father
      3. (with παῖδα (paîda), υἱὸν (huiòn), etc. ὑπὸ ζώνῃ (hupò zṓnēi)) I have a child put under my girdle, i.e. I concieve
        • Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite 282
          ἢν δέ τις εἴρηταί σε καταθνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, / ἥ τις σοι φίλον υἱὸν ὑπὸ ζώνῃ θέτο μήτηρ
          And if any mortal man ask you who got your dear son beneath her girdle
      4. (with ἐν ὄμμασι (en ómmasi)) I set before one's eyes
        • 522 BCE – 443 BCE, Pindar, Nemean Ode 8.43
          μαστεύει δὲ καὶ τέρψις ἐν ὄμμασι θέσθαι πιστόν
          yet delight also seeks to set a trustworthy pledge before the eyes
      5. (with ψῆφον (psêphon)) I give my vote or opinion, I vote
        • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 816
          ἀνδροθνῆτας Ἰλίου φθορὰς / ἐς αἱματηρὸν τεῦχος οὐ διχορρόπως / ψήφους ἔθεντο
          they cast into the bloody urn their ballots for the murderous destroying of Ilium
      6. (with ἐν στήθεσσι (en stḗthessi), ἐν φρεσί (en phresí), etc.) I put or plant in one's heart
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 13.732
          ἄλλῳ δ᾽ ἐν στήθεσσι τιθεῖ νόον εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς ἐσθλόν
          and in the breast of another Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, [he] puts a mind of understanding
      7. (with τὰ ὅπλα (tà hópla))
        1. I rest arms, halt
        2. I bear arms, fight
          • 384 BCE – 322 BCE, Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians 8.5
            ὃς [] μὴ θῆται τὰ ὅπλα μηδὲ μεθ᾽ ἑτέρων, ἄτιμον εἶναι
            whoever [] did not join forces with either party was to be disenfranchised
        3. I lay down arms, surrender
        4. (with εὖ ()) I keep arms in good order
          • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Cyropaedia 4.5.3
            τὰ δ᾽ ἐν ταῖς σκηναῖς αὐτοὶ ὁρᾶτε καὶ τὰ ὅπλα εὖ τίθεσθε
            but look out for what may happen in the tents and have your arms stacked conveniently
      8. (with τὰ γόνατα (tà gónata)) I kneel
        • New Testament, The Gospel of Mark 15:19
          τιθέντες τὰ γόνατα προσεκύνουν αὐτῷ
          bowing their knees they did homage to him
    2. I deposit
      • 390 BCE – 322 BCE, Hyperides, Against Athenogenes 5
        θεὶς ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν τὰς τετταράκοντα μνᾶς
        I deposited the forty minas in the bank
    3. I pay
    4. I put down in writing
      • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, Laws 793b
        τε καὶ κειμένων καὶ τῶν ἔτι θησομένων
        both those already enacted in writing and those still to be enacted
    5. I bury
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 23.83
        μὴ ἐμὰ σῶν ἀπάνευθε τιθήμεναι ὀστέ᾽ Ἀχιλλεῦ
        Lay not my bones apart from thine, Achilles
    6. I offer, set before
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 23.263
        ἱππεῦσιν μὲν πρῶτα ποδώκεσιν ἀγλά᾽ ἄεθλα θῆκε
        For swift charioteers first he set forth goodly prizes
      • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, Laws 719a
        ὁ δὲ προάγων λόγος ὅ γέ μοι ἀπείργασται, βούλομαι ὑμῖν εἰς τὸ μέσον αὐτὸ θεῖναι.
        Now I wish to put before you what I take to be the result of the foregoing argument.
    7. I assign, award
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 24.57
        εἰ δὴ ὁμὴν Ἀχιλῆϊ καὶ Ἕκτορι θήσετε τιμήν
        if indeed ye gods will vouchsafe like honour to Achilles and to Hector
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 18.5
        Ἀρναῖος δ᾽ ὄνομ᾽ ἔσκε: τὸ γὰρ θέτο πότνια μήτηρ ἐκ γενετῆς:
        Arnaeus was his name, for this name his honored mother had given him at his birth.
    8. (often with νόμον (nómon)) I lay down, enact
      • 497 BCE – 405 BCE, Sophocles, Electra 580
        ὅρα τιθεῖσα τόνδε τὸν νόμον βροτοῖς / μὴ πῆμα σαυτῇ καὶ μετάγνοιαν τιθῇς.
        See that by laying down such a law for men, you do not lay down trouble and remorse for yourself.
      • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta 15.2
        ἔθηκε γὰρ θύειν μὲν βασιλέα πρὸ τῆς πόλεως τὰ δημόσια ἅπαντα
        He ordained that the King shall offer all the public sacrifices on behalf of the state
      1. (middle) I agree upon
        • 384 BCE – 322 BCE, Demosthenes, Against Phaenippus 13
          ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς συγχωρήσαντες ἐθέμεθα
          we fix upon another [day] by mutual agreement
      2. (of a legal document) I execute
    9. I establish, institute
      • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 845
        ἀγῶνας θέντες ἐν πανηγύρει βουλευσόμεσθα
        we shall establish open debates and consider
    10. I order, ordain, cause to happen
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 8.465
        οὕτω νῦν Ζεὺς θείη, [] οἴκαδέ τ᾽ ἐλθέμεναι
        so may Zeus grant, [] that I may reach my home
      • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1673
        ἐγὼ καὶ σὺ θήσομεν κρατοῦντε τῶνδε δωμάτων καλῶς.
        I and you will be masters of this house and order it aright.
      1. (in board games) I place (pieces)
        • 380 BCE, Plato, The Republic 604c
          ὥσπερ ἐν πτώσει κύβων πρὸς τὰ πεπτωκότα τίθεσθαι τὰ αὑτοῦ πράγματα
          as it were in the fall of the dice, to determine the movements of our affairs
  2. (copulative) I make, cause to be
    1. (with attributive substantive)
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.290
        εἰ δέ μιν αἰχμητὴν ἔθεσαν θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες
        If the gods who exist for ever made him a spearman
      1. (middle) I cause to be my
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 21.72
          ἀλλ᾽ ἐμὲ ἱέμενοι γῆμαι θέσθαι τε γυναῖκα
          save only as desiring to wed me and make me your wife
    2. (with infinitive)
      • 431 BCE, Euripides, Medea 718
        παύσω γέ σ᾽ ὄντ᾽ ἄπαιδα καὶ παίδων γονὰς σπεῖραί σε θήσω
        I will put an end to your childlessness and cause you to beget children
    3. I regard, consider as; I hold, reckon that
      • 497 BCE – 405 BCE, Sophocles, Electra 1270
        δαιμόνιον αὐτὸ τίθημ᾽ ἐγώ.
        I regard it as a work of the divine.
      • 442 BCE, Sophocles, Antigone 1166
        τὰς γὰρ ἡδονὰς ὅταν προδῶσιν ἄνδρες, οὐ τίθημ᾽ ἐγὼ ζῆν τοῦτον
        When a man has forfeited his pleasures, I hold not that he lives
      1. I assume
        • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, Phaedo 79a
          θῶμεν οὖν βούλει, ἔφη, δύο εἴδη τῶν ὄντων;
          "Now," said he, "shall we assume two kinds of existences?"
      2. I affirm
  3. I make
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 12.418
      οὔτε γὰρ ἴφθιμοι Λύκιοι Δαναῶν ἐδύναντο / τεῖχος ῥηξάμενοι θέσθαι παρὰ νηυσὶ κέλευθον
      For neither could the mighty Lycians break the wall of the Danaans, and make a path to the ships
    1. (in periphrasis)
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.116
        εἴ ποθεν ἐλθὼν μνηστήρων τῶν μὲν σκέδασιν κατὰ δώματα θείη
        should he perchance come from somewhere and make a scattering of the wooers in the palace

Usage notes[edit]

The first aorist is used only in the indicative, and mostly in the singular and third-person plural.


Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]