imitate; model; norm; pattern
paste; cream; muddled; scorched
|simp. and trad.
Etymology unclear. A literal derivation is unlikely. First attested in the Tang Dynasty. If not a loanword from an Altaic language, it is likely that this is a disyllabic derivative of the Old Chinese root *m̥aŋ/m̥oŋ/m̥ɯŋ ("unclear, confused"), which had numerous descendants, for example 盲 (máng, “to be blind”), 茫 (máng, “boundless and indistinct”), 蒙 (méng, “darkness”), 夢／梦 (mèng, “dream”), 昏 (hūn, “dim, confused”). Compare 馬虎／马虎 (mǎhu, “careless”), 麻胡 (máhú, “a mythical ferocious character”), 瑪呼／玛呼 (mǎhū, “(to put on) a mask”), 糊塗／糊涂 (hútu, “confused, obfuscated”).
- Cantonese (Jyutping): mou4 wu4
- Min Nan (POJ): mô͘-hô͘ / bô͘-hô͘
- (Standard Chinese, standard in Mainland)
- (Standard Chinese, standard in Taiwan)
- (Standard Chinese, common variant)
- Min Nan
- (Hokkien: Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou)
- (Hokkien: mainstream Taiwanese, Xiamen, Zhangzhou)
Middle Chinese: /muo ɦuo/