bourgeois

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: Bourgeois

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from French bourgeois (a class of citizens who were wealthier members of the Third Estate), from Old French burgeis (town dweller), from Frankish *burg, ultimately from Proto-Germanic *burgz (stronghold; city) (whence borough). Doublet of burgess; compare also burgish.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bourgeois (comparative more bourgeois, superlative most bourgeois)

  1. Of or relating to the middle class, (often derogatory) their presumed overly conventional, conservative, and materialistic values.
    bourgeois opinion
  2. (historical) Of or relating to the bourgeoisie, the third estate of the French Ancien Regime.
  3. (Marxism) Of or relating to the capitalist class, (usually derogatory) the capitalist exploitation of the proletariat.
Synonyms[edit]
  • (conventional, conservative): square
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

bourgeois (usually uncountable, plural bourgeois)

  1. (politics, collectively, usually in the plural) The middle class.
  2. (rare) An individual member of the middle class.
  3. (usually derogatory) A person of any class with bourgeois (i.e., overly conventional and materialistic) values and attitudes.
  4. (history) An individual member of the bourgeoisie, the third estate of the French Ancien Regime.
  5. (Marxism) A capitalist, (usually derogatory) an exploiter of the proletariat.
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

bourgeois (third-person singular simple present bourgeoises, present participle bourgeoising, simple past and past participle bourgeoised)

  1. (transitive) To make bourgeois.

Further reading[edit]

  • "bourgeois" in Raymond Williams, Keywords (revised), 1983, Fontana Press, page 45.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English burjois, from French Bourgois, probably from Bourges (the French city) + -ois (forming adjectives) but possibly from bourgeois above or after Jean de Bourgeois who worked as a printer in Rouen c. 1500.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bourgeois (uncountable)

  1. (printing, dated) A size of type between brevier and long primer, standardized as 9-point.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French bourgeois.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /burˈʒʋaː/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: bour‧geois
  • Rhymes: -aː

Noun[edit]

bourgeois m (plural bourgeois, diminutive bourgeoistje n)

  1. bourgeois

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Indonesian: borjuis

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle French bourgois, from Old French borgeis (town dweller), from borc (fortified place, town), ultimately from Proto-Germanic *burgz (fortress), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰr̥ǵʰs (fortified elevation).

The path from Proto-Germanic to Old French is unclear. Perhaps via Frankish *burg or Late Latin burgus, or possibly both, and probably through the Late Latin [Term?] intermediate burgensis. Compare Italian borghese, Portuguese burguês, Spanish burgués.

Synchronically analysable as bourg +‎ -ois.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bourgeois (feminine bourgeoise, masculine plural bourgeois, feminine plural bourgeoises)

  1. bourgeois

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bourgeois m (plural bourgeois, feminine bourgeoise)

  1. member of the middle class
  2. bourgeois

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French bourgeois, name for a wealthy class of French citizens in the late 18th century.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bʊrˈʒu̯aː/, [bʊʁˈʒʋaː], [ˌbʊʁ.ʒuˈaː], [bʊɐ̯-] (standard; basic form)
  • IPA(key): /bʊrˈʒu̯aːz-/ (standard; inflected forms)
  • IPA(key): /bʊrˈʃu̯aː(s-)/ (often in southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland)
  • (file)

Adjective[edit]

bourgeois (strong nominative masculine singular bourgeoiser, comparative bourgeoiser, superlative am bourgeoisesten)

  1. bourgeois
  2. snobbish, elitist (in the context of the upper middle class)

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • bourgeois” in Duden online
  • bourgeois” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache