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From Proto-Italic *rumpō, from Proto-Indo-European *Hrunépti ~ *Hrumpénti (to break), from the root *Hrewp-.



rumpō (present infinitive rumpere, perfect active rūpī, supine ruptum); third conjugation

  1. I break, burst, tear, rend, rupture; break asunder, force open.
    Synonyms: dissolvo, solvo, absolvo, persolvo, distraho, findo, minuo
    Antonyms: coniungo, contraho, consocio, iungo, colligo, illigo, ligo, concilio
  2. (of the body) I break, split, rupture, burst.
  3. (figuratively) I break, interrupt, violate, infringe, cancel, stop, annul, destroy.
    Synonyms: interrumpō, interveniō, dirimō, āvocō, frangō, īnfringō, violō, irrumpō
  4. ((passive) and (reflexive)) I result, arise, spring, erupt.
  5. I issue, emit, bring out.


   Conjugation of rumpō (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present rumpō rumpis rumpit rumpimus rumpitis rumpunt
imperfect rumpēbam rumpēbās rumpēbat rumpēbāmus rumpēbātis rumpēbant
future rumpam rumpēs rumpet rumpēmus rumpētis rumpent
perfect rūpī rūpistī rūpit rūpimus rūpistis rūpērunt,
pluperfect rūperam rūperās rūperat rūperāmus rūperātis rūperant
future perfect rūperō rūperis rūperit rūperimus rūperitis rūperint
sigmatic future1 rupsō rupsis rupsit rupsimus rupsitis rupsint
passive present rumpor rumperis,
rumpitur rumpimur rumpiminī rumpuntur
imperfect rumpēbar rumpēbāris,
rumpēbātur rumpēbāmur rumpēbāminī rumpēbantur
future rumpar rumpēris,
rumpētur rumpēmur rumpēminī rumpentur
perfect ruptus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect ruptus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect ruptus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present rumpam rumpās rumpat rumpāmus rumpātis rumpant
imperfect rumperem rumperēs rumperet rumperēmus rumperētis rumperent
perfect rūperim rūperīs rūperit rūperīmus rūperītis rūperint
pluperfect rūpissem rūpissēs rūpisset rūpissēmus rūpissētis rūpissent
sigmatic aorist1 rupsim rupsīs rupsīt rupsīmus rupsītis rupsint
passive present rumpar rumpāris,
rumpātur rumpāmur rumpāminī rumpantur
imperfect rumperer rumperēris,
rumperētur rumperēmur rumperēminī rumperentur
perfect ruptus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect ruptus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present rumpe rumpite
future rumpitō rumpitō rumpitōte rumpuntō
passive present rumpere rumpiminī
future rumpitor rumpitor rumpuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives rumpere rūpisse ruptūrum esse rumpī ruptum esse ruptum īrī
participles rumpēns ruptūrus ruptus rumpendus,
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
rumpendī rumpendō rumpendum rumpendō ruptum ruptū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to").

Derived terms[edit]



  • rumpo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • rumpo in Enrico Olivetti, editor (2003-2022) Dizionario Latino, Olivetti Media Communication
  • rumpo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • rumpo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to annul, revoke a will: testamentum irritum facere, rumpere
    • to burst one's chains: vincula rumpere
    • to violate a treaty, terms of alliance: foedus frangere, rumpere, violare