stingrs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as the verb stingt (to harden, to stiffen) (q.v.), with an extra (adjectivizing?) r. A parallel form without the r yielded stings (stiff, numb). Cognates include Lithuanian stiñgras (firm, strict), stingrùs, stìngrus (rigid, stiff, numb; hard, solid; strained; heavy).[1]

The verb stiñgt (to stiffen) is cognate with Lithuanian stìngti (id.). According to Karulis, from Proto-Indo-European *ten- (to stretch, pull, flex, clench) (whence also Latvian tiepties), with an anlaut s- (compare stiept) and an extra -gh, thus Proto-Indo-European *stengh- : *stn̥gh- > Proto-Baltic *steng- : *sting-.

According to a different view (Endzelīns, Vasmer, Pokorny), stingt is to be linked with Old High German stanga (stick, club), Old High German stengil (stalk) from Proto-Indo-European *stegh- (to stab) or, according to Pokorny, with Sanskrit स्त्यायते (styāyate, coagulates, becomes hard), Gothic 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (stains), German Stein (rock) from Proto-Indo-European *stāi- : *stī̆- (to thicken).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

stingrs (def. stingrais, comp. stingrāks, sup. visstingrākais; adv. stingri)

  1. (of objects, materials, etc.) firm, strong, rigid (capable of resisting the actions of mechanical forces without harm or change)
    stingra sijastrong, firm beam
    stingra construkcijastrong, firm construction
    stingra atsperestrong, firm spring
    stingrs rāmisstrong, firm, rigid frame
    stingrs audumsstrong fabric
    stingrs savienojumsfirm, rigid compound
    stingra masafirm, rigid mass
    pamats te stingrs, tu ar savu buldozeru vari droši braukt virsū!the foundation is strong, firm here, you and your bulldozer can safely ride on top (of it)!
    “piesēdieties, lūdzu”, viņa pastūma Berga kundzei stingrāko krēslu“please sit down,” she pushed to(ward) Mrs Bergs the a firmer, stronger chair
    olu baltumus kopā ar cukuru saputo stingrās putāsone whips the whites of the eggs together with the sugar into a firm foam
  2. (of living beings, their bodies) firm, strong, sturdy (having much strength; physically well developed, not weak, not brittle)
    stingrs zirgsstrong horse
    stingri kokistrong, firm trees
    tēvs bija vēl stingrs vecis, kādreiz strādājis kalēja darbus(his) father was still a strong old man, (who) had once worked as a blacksmith
    jēriņš, kaut arī lēnām, brieda arvien stingrāks un apaļāksthe little lamb, albeit slowly, was growing increasingly stronger and rounder
    stingrais augums, kuru apņēma sarkani puķota katūna kleitiņa, gan rādīja jau sievieti, bet viņas seja... atgādināja biklu skolnieciher firm height (= body), hugged by a little flowery cotton dress, already showed a woman, but her face... recalled the timid schoolgirl
    viņa zina, ka pēc pāris nedēļām vīra rokas būs daudz stingrākas nekā šobrīd... viņai patīk stipras rokasshe knows that after a couple of weeks (her) husband's hands will be much firmer, stronger than now... she likes strong hands
  3. firm, strong (done, happening with energy, strength; affecting (something else) strongly)
    rokas spiediens - stingrs, kā jau cilvēkiem, kas draugos ar tehniku(his) handshake (is) firm, like that of someone who is friends with the technique
    eju dēlam pa priekšu stingriem, noteiktiem soļiemI go ahead of (my) son (with) firm, determined steps
  4. firm, strong, rigorous (showing above average intensity)
    vējš ar katru stundu kļuva aizvien stingrākswith every hour, the wind became increasingly stronger
    togad bija tāda pati agra un stingra ziema kā šogad, tikai sals uzknieba vēl niknākthat year winter was just as rigorous as this year, only the frost was biting even more wildly (= strongly, painfully)
  5. (of ideas, norms, principles, actions, or the people who espouse them) firm, strong, rigorous, strict (based on certain, usually fixed, opinions, viewpoints; expressing such viewpoints)
    stingrs principsfirm principle
    stingrs likumsrigorous, strict law
    stingra nostājafirm, rigorous stance
    stingra pārliecībafirm, strong conviction, belief
    stingra tīcībastrong faith
    stingrs rīkojumsstrict instructions, orders
    stringra audzināšanastrict upbringing
    stingrs rājensstrong, firm reprimand
    stingrs skolotājs, audzinātājsstrict teacher, educator
    stingrs tēvsstrict father
    stingra sejastrict, firm face
    slimnieks jāievēro stingrs režīmsthe patient must observe a strict regime
    viņi bija save ceļa gājēji ar stingriem uzksatiem par dzīvi un cilvēkiemthey were going their own way, with firm, strict opinions about life and people
    veltīgi cerēt, māmiņa ir stingrait is futile to hope (for more freedom), mommy is strict
    meitene izskatījās neatkarīga un ar stingru raksturuthe girl looked independent and strict of character
  6. (of social phenomena) strong, firm, stable (which does not change in time)
    stingra valsts varastrong state power
    stingrs miersfirm, stable peace
  7. (colloquial, of alcoholic beverages) strong (with high alcohol content)
    Pētera šņabis bija tik stingrs un krietns, ka viņa slava bija izplatījusies pat vācu aprindāsPēteris' vodka was so strong and robust that his fame had spread even in German circles
  8. (colloquial, adverbial form) very; fully
    kažociņš bija stingri vien apvalkātsthe fur coat was strictly (= very) worn, shabby
  9. (mathematics, with nevienādība (inequality)) strict; such that is not true if an equals sign is placed between a and b
    stingras nevienādības grafiks ir raustīta līnijathe graph of a strict inequality is a dashed line

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “stingrs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7
  2. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “stingt”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7