هم

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See also: ہم

Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /hum/
  • (file)

Pronoun[edit]

هُمْ (humm pl (enclitic form ـهُم or ـهِم)

  1. they (masculine plural subject pronoun)
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ـهُمْ or ـهِمْ (-hum or -himm pl (enclitic form of هُم(hum))

  1. them, their (masculine plural bound object pronoun)

Etymology 3[edit]

From the root ه م م(h-m-m).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

هَمَّ (hamma) I, non-past يَهُمُّ‎‎ (yahummu)

  1. to disquiet, to make uneasy, to distress
  2. to grieve
  3. to preoccupy, to concern, to affect
  4. to be of interest
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From the root ه م م(h-m-m).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

هَمّ (hammm (plural هُمُوم(humūm))

  1. verbal noun of هَمَّ (hamma) (form I)
  2. anxiety, concern, worry, care
  3. sorrow, grief, affliction, distress
  4. weight, moment, importance
Declension[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From the root ه م م(h-m-m).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

هِمّ (himm) (feminine هِمَّة(himma), masculine plural أَهْمَام(ʾahmām), feminine plural هَمَائِم(hamāʾim) or هِمَّات(himmāt))

  1. decrepit, senile
Declension[edit]
References[edit]
  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “هم”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN

Noun[edit]

هِمّ (himmm (plural أَهْمَام(ʾahmām), feminine هِمَّة(himma))

  1. old man
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • Freytag, Georg (1837), “هم”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 406
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860), “هم”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, page 1442
  • Steingass, Francis Joseph (1884), “هم”, in The Student's Arabic–English Dictionary[1], London: W.H. Allen, page 1181
  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “هم”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985), “هم”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 1355–1356

Egyptian Arabic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

هم (hummapl

  1. they

See also[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ـهم (-humpl

  1. them, their

Hijazi Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic هُمْ(hum).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

هم (hummapl

  1. they

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ـهُم (-humpl

  1. them, their

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic هَمّ(hamm).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

هم (hammm (plural هموم(humūm) or أهمام(ʾahmām))

  1. worry

Iraqi Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Persian هم(ham).

Adverb[edit]

هم (ham)

  1. still, all the same
    مهما نسوي هم مقصرين.‎‎
    Mahma nsawwi ham muqaṣṣirīn.
    Whatever we do, we still don't do enough.

Persian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ـم(-am) (colloquial)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Persian hm (ham, also, same), from Old Persian 𐏃𐎶 (h-m /ham(a)/, same, together), from Proto-Iranian *hamHáh, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *samHás, from Proto-Indo-European *somHós (same). Compare Sanskrit सम (sama), English same.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

هم (ham)

  1. also, too
    از این کتاب هم خوشم می‌آید.‎‎
    Az in ketâb ham xošam mi-âyad.
    I like this book, also. (formal)
    از این کتاب هم خوشم می‌آد.‎‎
    Az in ketâb am xošam mi-âd.
    I like this book, also. (colloquial)
  2. similarly

Usage notes[edit]

هم (ham) directly follows the word or phrase it modifies.

از این کتاب هم خوشم می‌آید.‎‎
Az in ketâb ham xošam mi-âyad.
I like this book, also. (In addition to another book that I like, I like this one.)
من هم از این کتاب خوشم می‌آید.‎‎
Man ham az in ketâb xošam mi-âyad.
I also like this book. (In addition to someone else who likes this book, I do.)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Armenian: համ (ham, and, both)
  • Azerbaijani: həm (and)
  • Bashkir: һәм (häm, and)
  • Tatar: һәм (häm, and)
  • Iraqi Arabic: هم(still)

References[edit]

  • MacKenzie, D. N. (1971), “ham”, in A concise Pahlavi dictionary, London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, page 39

South Levantine Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic هُمْ(hum).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /hom.me/, [ˈhʊm.me]
  • (file)

Pronoun[edit]

هم (hommepl (enclitic form ـهم‎(-hom))

  1. they (third-person plural subject pronoun)
    Synonym: (Galilee) هن(hinne)

See also[edit]

South Levantine Arabic personal pronouns
Singular Plural
1st person أنا(ʔana) احنا(ʔiḥna)
2nd person m انت(ʔinta) انتو(ʔintu)
f انتي(ʔinti)
3rd person m هو(huwwe) هم (homme)
f هي(hiyye)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic ـهُمْ(-hum) or ـهِمْ(-him).

Suffix[edit]

ـهم (-hompl

  1. Enclitic form of هم (homme)
  2. they, them, their
    Synonym: (Galilee) ـهن(-hen)

See also[edit]

South Levantine Arabic enclitic pronouns
Singular Plural
after consonant after vowel
1st person after verb ـني(-ni) ـنا(-na)
else ـِي(-i) ـي(-y)
2nd person m ـَك(-ak) ـك(-k) ـكُم(-kom) / ـكو(-ku)
f ـِك(-ek) ـكي(-ki)
3rd person m ـُه(-o) ـه(-h) ـهُم (-hom)
f ـها(-ha)

Etymology 3[edit]

Root
ه م م

From Arabic هَمَّ(hamma).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

همّ (hamm) (form I, present بهمّ(bihimm))

  1. to concern, to preoccupy
Conjugation[edit]
    Conjugation of همّ (hamm)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m همّيت (hammēt) همّيت (hammēt) همّ (hamm) همّينا (hammēna) همّيتو (hammētu) همّو (hammu)
f همّيتي (hammēti) همّت (hammat)
present m بهمّ (bahimm) بتهمّ (bithimm) بهمّ (bihimm) منهمّ (minhimm) بتهمّو (bithimmu) بهمّو (bihimmu)
f بتهمّي (bithimmi) بتهمّ (bithimm)
subjunctive m اهمّ (ahimm) تهمّ (thimm) يهمّ (yhimm) نهمّ (nhimm) تهمّو (thimmu) يهمّو (yhimmu)
f تهمّي (thimmi) تهمّ (thimm)
imperative m همّ (himm) همّو (himmu)
f همّي (himmi)

Tunisian Arabic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ـهُمْ‎ (-humpl

  1. them, their