新羅

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See also: 新罗

Chinese[edit]

phonetic
trad. (新羅)
simp. (新罗)
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Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Records of the Three Kingdoms (三國志), c.290s as 斯盧 (OC *se b·raː, MC siᴇ luo) as in 斯盧國(Saro state), one of the 12 statelets belonged to Jinhan confederacy. Other old variations include 新盧 (OC *siŋ b·raː, MC siɪn luo) and 斯羅 (OC *se raːl, MC siᴇ lɑ).

In the old Korean documents, those country names were equated with the name of the capital, Old Korean 徐羅伐 (syerapel, Seorabeol, now Gyeongju), compound of 徐羅 (syera) and (pel, village) (other variants include 徐那伐 (syenapel), 徐耶伐 (syeyapel) and 徐伐 (syepel), whence 서울 (seoul, “capital”)).[1]

(sye), the first syllable of 徐羅 is considered to mean "gold" because of 금성 (金城, geumseong, “gold castle/fort/city”), sinicized name of the capital of Silla (cf. (soe, “iron, metal”)). The second syllable (ra) is, according to one theory, a connective particle[2][3], but another theory posits that it means "land".[4]

Pronunciation[edit]


Proper noun[edit]

新羅

  1. Silla (one of the ancient Three Kingdoms of Korea)

Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ e.g. Samguk yusa (三國遺事), c.1280s: "國號徐羅伐。又徐伐〈今俗訓京字云徐伐以此故也〉或云斯羅。又斯盧。"
  2. ^ Suematsu, Yasukazu (1965) 青丘史草〈第1〉[1], page 59
  3. ^ Saitō, Tadashi (2013) 消された日本建国の謎[2], ISBN 978-4054056497
  4. ^ Kanazawa, Shōzaburō (1929) 日鮮同祖論[3]

Japanese[edit]

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Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2 Grade: S
Irregular

/ɕiraki//ɕiraɡi/

Shift from older 新羅 (しらき, ​shiraki).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

新羅 (hiragana しらぎ, rōmaji Shiragi)

  1. Silla: (one of the ancient Three Kingdoms of Korea), between 57 BCE and 935 CE
Derived terms[edit]
Coordinate terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2 Grade: S
Irregular

/siraki2[sirakɨ] > [ɕiraki]

Compare Man'yōgana forms 新羅奇 (MC siɪn lɑ kˠiᴇ), 新良貴 (MC siɪn lɨɐŋ kʉiH) and 志羅紀 (MC t͡ɕɨH lɑ kɨX).

Shiratori (1896) derived this word from Old Korean *徐羅城 (syera-kuy), reconstructed from 徐羅 (syera) as in 徐羅伐 (syerapel, Seorabeol, name of the Silla's capital city, Gyeongju now), or 斯羅 (MC siᴇ lɑ, “older name of Silla”), and Old Japanese (ki2 [kɨ], fortress, castle) considered as borrowed from Baekje (kuy), from Goguryeo (hwol) and older form 溝婁 (kwurwu, OC *koː ɡ·roː/ɡ·ro, MC kəu lɨo|ləu), equated with Old Korean (pel, village).[2][3]

Aisin-Gioro (2009) proposed that there are also similar exonyms for Korea, made from the same configuration, Old Turkic 𐰲𐰇𐰞𐰍𐰞(čölgl, Silla), Jurchen solgor (Goryeo) (whence Manchu ᠰᠣᠯᡥᠣ (solho, Korea), and borrowed as Mongolian Солго (Solgo, Korea)) and Middle Mongolian 莎郎合思 (Solangqas, Goryeo) (whence Mongolian Солонгос (Solongos, Korea)), as being related to *徐羅城 (syera-kuy), and Khitan šʊlwʊr (Silla, Goryeo) as a descendant of 徐羅伐 (syera-pel).[4][5]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

新羅 (hiragana しらき, rōmaji Shiraki)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) Silla

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: 2

Grade: S
on’yomi

From the Middle Chinese-derived reading of the kanji characters.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

新羅 (hiragana しんら, rōmaji Shinra)

  1. Silla

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ according to 白鳥庫吉全集〈第3巻〉朝鮮史研究[4], 1970, first published in Shiratori, Kurakichi (1896), “朝鮮古代王號考”, in 史學雜誌, volume 7, 史學會 (The Historical Society of Japan)
  3. ^ Mabuchi, Kazuhito (1978), “『三国史記』記載の百済地名より見た古代百済語の考察 (On the Ancient Language of Kudara as Reflected in Kudara Place Names in the Sangokushiki)”, in 文藝言語研究. 言語篇 3[5], archived from the original on 17 April 2019, retrieved 29 October 2018, page 79
  4. ^ Aisin-Gioro, Ulhicun (2009) 愛新覚羅烏拉熙春女真契丹学研究[6], ISBN 978-4879746177, page 47
  5. ^ Aisin-Gioro, Ulhicun (2011) 韓半島から眺めた契丹・女真[7], 京都大学学術出版会 (Kyoto University Press), ISBN 978-4876985777

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Proper noun[edit]

新羅 (Silla) (hangeul 신라)

  1. Hanja form? of 신라 (Silla).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Proper noun[edit]

新羅

  1. Hán tự form of Tân La (Silla).