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U+934A, 鍊
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-934A

[U+9349]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+934B]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Alternative forms[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 167 +9, 17 strokes, cangjie input 金木田火 (CDWF), four-corner 85196, composition)

  1. smelt metals, forge
  2. refine

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1313, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40602
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1814, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4228, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+934A

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Small seal script
鍊-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn, *ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːn, *ɡ·raːnʔ, *ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːns
*ɡr·reːn
*kreːnʔ, *ɡ·reːns
*kreːnʔ
*kreːnʔ
*kraːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·reːns):  (metal) + .

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lenH/
Pan
Wuyun
/lenH/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɛnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɛnH/
Li
Rong
/lenH/
Wang
Li
/lienH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lienH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
liàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ lenH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ˤen-s/
English refine (metal)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6142
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·reːns/

Definitions[edit]

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ryeon>yeon) (hangeul >, revised ryeon>yeon, McCune-Reischauer ryŏn>yŏn, Yale lyen>yen)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.