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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Small seal script
爛-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·raːns):  ‎(fire) + 

Han character[edit]

(radical 86 +17, 21 strokes, cangjie input 火日弓田 (FANW), four-corner 97820, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 687, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19604
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1099, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2249, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+721B

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (37)
Final: (61)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: làn
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑnH/ /lɑnH/ /lɑnH/ /lanH/ /lɑnH/ /lɑnH/ /lɑnH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
làn ‹ lanH › /*[r]ˤan-s/ cooked until soft

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
6130 1 /*ɡ·raːns/

Adjective[edit]

  1. (of fruits, etc.) rotten, spoiled, decayed
    蘋果 / 苹果  ―  làn pínguǒ  ―  rotten apple
  2. well-cooked, soft, and/or mushy
    鍾意薯仔 / 钟意薯仔 [Cantonese]  ―  Keoi5 zung1 ji3 di1 syu4 zai2 zyu2 dak1 hou2 laan6. [Jyutping]  ―  He likes his potatoes cooked very mushy.
  3. broken, fragmented, shattered
    其他人知錯 [Cantonese, trad.]
    其他人知错 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Keoi5 zing2 laan6 kei4 taa1 jan4 di1 je5 dou1 m4 zi1 co3. [Jyutping]
    He didn't apologize even though he broke someone else's things.
  4. bad; awful
    gag / gag [Cantonese]  ―  laan6 gag [Jyutping]  ―  bad joke
    英文 / 英文  ―  Wǒ de yīngwén hěn làn.  ―  My English is awful.

Verb[edit]

  1. to rot, to decay, to decompose, to spoil

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ran, nan) (hangeul , , revised ran, nan, McCune-Reischauer ran, nan, Yale lan, nan)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

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