guru

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See also: Guru and gurú

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Hindi गुरू (gurū) / Urdu گرو(guru) / Punjabi ਗੁਰੂ (gurū), from Sanskrit गुरु (guru, venerable, respectable), originally "heavy" and in this sense cognate to English grieve. (A traditional etymology based on the Advayataraka Upanishad (line 16)[1] describes the syllables gu as 'darkness' and ru as 'destroyer', thus meaning "one who destroys/dispels darkness"). Doublet of grave, grief, and brute.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈɡʊɹuː/, /ˈɡuːɹuː/, /ɡʊˈɹuː/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈɡʊɹ(ˌ)u/, /ˈɡu(ˌ)ɹu/, /ɡəˈɹu/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

guru (plural gurus)

  1. A Hindu or Sikh spiritual teacher. [from 17th c.]
    • 1817, William Ward, History, Literature and Religion of the Hindoos, vol II:
      When the gooroo arrives at the house of a disciple, the whole family prostrate themselves at his feet, and the spiritual guide puts his right foot on the heads of the prostrate family.
    • 2010, Wendy Shanker, The Guardian, 10 May 2010:
      Traditionally, a guru is a spiritual teacher who guides a student on the road to Enlightenment, or finding God.
  2. (sometimes humorous) An influential advisor or mentor. [from 20th c.]
    • 2004, ‘Vintage technology’, Time, 18 Oct 2004:
      Many oenophiles rely on the ratings and recommendations of wine guru Robert Parker when selecting the perfect bottle.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “Advaya Taraka Upanishad(English Translation)”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], accessed December 15, 2011

Blagar[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru

  1. teacher

References[edit]


Czech[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru m

  1. guru (spiritual teacher)
  2. guru (leader or expert in a field)

Finnish[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru

  1. A guru

Declension[edit]

Inflection of guru (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative guru gurut
genitive gurun gurujen
partitive gurua guruja
illative guruun guruihin
singular plural
nominative guru gurut
accusative nom. guru gurut
gen. gurun
genitive gurun gurujen
partitive gurua guruja
inessive gurussa guruissa
elative gurusta guruista
illative guruun guruihin
adessive gurulla guruilla
ablative gurulta guruilta
allative gurulle guruille
essive guruna guruina
translative guruksi guruiksi
instructive guruin
abessive gurutta guruitta
comitative guruineen
Possessive forms of guru (type valo)
possessor singular plural
1st person guruni gurumme
2nd person gurusi gurunne
3rd person gurunsa

French[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru m (plural gurus)

  1. Alternative spelling of gourou

Hausa[edit]

Noun[edit]

gūr̃ū m (plural gūr̃ā̀yē, possessed form gūr̃un)

  1. A large leather belt, usually containing charms.

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Hindi गुरु (guru), from Sanskrit गुरु (guru, heavy).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈɡuru]
  • Hyphenation: gu‧ru

Noun[edit]

guru (plural guruk)

  1. guru (a Hindu or Sikh spiritual teacher)
  2. guru (leader or expert in a field)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative guru guruk
accusative gurut gurukat
dative gurunak guruknak
instrumental guruval gurukkal
causal-final guruért gurukért
translative guruvá gurukká
terminative guruig gurukig
essive-formal guruként gurukként
essive-modal
inessive guruban gurukban
superessive gurun gurukon
adessive gurunál guruknál
illative guruba gurukba
sublative gurura gurukra
allative guruhoz gurukhoz
elative guruból gurukból
delative gururól gurukról
ablative gurutól guruktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
gurué guruké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
guruéi gurukéi
Possessive forms of guru
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. gurum guruim
2nd person sing. gurud guruid
3rd person sing. guruja gurui
1st person plural gurunk guruink
2nd person plural gurutok guruitok
3rd person plural gurujuk guruik

References[edit]

  1. ^ guru in Tótfalusi, István. Magyar etimológiai nagyszótár (’Hungarian Comprehensive Dictionary of Etymology’). Budapest: Arcanum Adatbázis, 2001; Arcanum DVD Könyvtár →ISBN

Indonesian[edit]

Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

Etymology[edit]

From Malay guru, ultimately Sanskrit गुरु (gurú, guru, teacher, sage)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru (plural para guru, first-person possessive guruku, second-person possessive gurumu, third-person possessive gurunya)

  1. teacher

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Hindi गुरू (gurū, teacher)

Noun[edit]

guru m (invariable)

  1. A guru (religious or spiritual leader; influential person)

Latin[edit]

Noun[edit]

gū̆rū

  1. ablative singular of gū̆rus

Lindu[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru

  1. teacher

Malay[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit गुरु (gurú)

Noun[edit]

guru (plural guru-guru, informal 1st possessive guruku, impolite 2nd possessive gurumu, 3rd possessive gurunya)

  1. educator, teacher, instructor

Mapudungun[edit]

A red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /ŋʊʐʊ/

Noun[edit]

guru (using Raguileo Alphabet)

  1. A fox

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Sanskrit गुरु (guru). It is an assimilatory modification of garu.

Adjective[edit]

guru

  1. heavy
  2. venerable

Declension[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru m

  1. teacher (clarification of this definition is needed)

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

guru in Pali Text Society (1921–1925), Pali-English Dictionary, London: Chipstead. (licensed under CC-BY-NC)


Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit गुरु (gurú).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru m pers (indeclinable)

  1. guru

Further reading[edit]

  • guru in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Portuguese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pt

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit गुरु (gurú, venerable, respectable), originally "heavy", from Proto-Indo-European *gʷréh₂us.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru m (plural gurus)

  1. guru (spiritual teacher)

Noun[edit]

guru m, f (plural gurus)

  1. guru (advisor, mentor)

Related terms[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Noun[edit]

gȕru m (Cyrillic spelling гу̏ру)

  1. guru

Declension[edit]


Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Hindi गुरू (gurū) / Urdu گرو(guru), from Sanskrit गुरु (guru, venerable, respectable).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru m (genitive singular gurua, nominative plural guruovia, genitive plural guruov, declension pattern of chlap)

  1. guru

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • guru in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

Swahili[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Hindi गुड़ (guṛ, jaggery).

Noun[edit]

guru

  1. Only used in sukari guru (jaggery)

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Hindi गुरू (gurū), from Sanskrit गुरु (guru, heavy).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

guru c

  1. guru

Declension[edit]

Declension of guru 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative guru gurun gurur, guruer, gurus gururna, guruernas
Genitive gurus guruns gururs, guruers, gurus gururnas, guruernas

References[edit]