حبر

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See also: جبر‎, چتر‎, خبر‎, خبز, and چپر

Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the root ح ب ر(ḥ-b-r). Senses related to ink, writing, and discoloration are from Etymology 3 (see below).

Verb[edit]

حَبَرَ (ḥabara) I, non-past يَحْبُرُ‎‎ (yaḥburu) (transitive)

  1. to make happy; to elate
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:ar:make happy
    Hyponyms: كَرَّمَ(karrama), نَعَّمَ(naʿʿama), رَفَّهَ(raffaha), أَرَاحَ(ʾarāḥa)
  2. to ink, to fill, cover, smear, mark, write, draw, illustrate, or outline with ink
    1. to write
      Synonyms: كَتَبَ(kataba), نَمَقَ(namaqa)
  3. (dated) to improve the overall quality of (a text, a performance, a skill, and so on), to refine, to polish; to perfect
    Synonym: حَسَّنَ(ḥassana)
  4. (dated) to improve the shape, form, style, structure, or composition of (handwriting, voice, and so on), to beautify; to embellish; to pretty
    Synonym: جَمَّلَ(jammala)
    1. to improve in aspect or appearance, to make visually pleasing, to deck, to decorate, to ornament
      Synonyms: زَيَّنَ(zayyana), نَمَّقَ(nammaqa), زَوَّقَ(zawwaqa)
    2. to pattern (a garment); to embroider
      Synonyms: نَقَشَ(naqaša), طَرَّزَ(ṭarraza), وَشَّى(waššā)
Conjugation[edit]

Verb[edit]

حَبِرَ (ḥabira) I, non-past يَحْبَرُ‎‎ (yaḥbaru) (intransitive)

  1. to be or become glad or happy, to cheer up, to brighten
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:ar:become happy
  2. (of teeth) to become discolored (as if stained with ink), to become dark, to yellow
Conjugation[edit]

Noun[edit]

حَبْر (ḥabrm

  1. verbal noun of حَبَرَ (ḥabara) (form I)
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Denominal verb from حِبْر(ḥibr, ink). Senses related to improvement, perfection, and embellishment are from or influenced by the root ح ب ر(ḥ-b-r) (see above).

Verb[edit]

حَبَّرَ (ḥabbara) II, non-past يُحَبِّرُ‎‎ (yuḥabbiru) (transitive)

  1. to ink, to fill, cover, smear, mark, write, draw, illustrate, or outline with ink
    1. to write (especially in an elegant style), to compose
      Synonym: نَمَّقَ(nammaqa)
  2. (dated) to better or improve in quality, appearance, etc. to enhance; to polish up; to perfect
    1. (dated) to prettify; to bedeck, to adorn
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Classical Syriac ܚܒܪܐ(ḥeḇrā, ink), from the root ܚ-ܒ-ܪ(ḥ-b-r) related to darkness. Merged with the root ح ب ر(ḥ-b-r).

Noun[edit]

(file)

حِبْر (ḥibrm (plural أَحْبَار(ʾaḥbār))

  1. ink
    Synonyms: مِدَاد(midād), نِقْس(niqs)
    Holonyms: مِحْبَرَة(miḥbara), دَوَاة(dawāh)
  2. beauty
Declension[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Hebrew חָבֵר(ḥaḇér, comrade) in a specific meaning as used for sectarian cadres. Merged with Etymology 3 by analogy with the use of ink by religious clerks and scribes, hence "a man of learning", hence "a scholarly theologian", hence "an authority in matters of religion".

Noun[edit]

حَبْر or حِبْر (ḥabr or ḥibrm (plural أَحْبَار(ʾaḥbār)) (countable)

  1. (broadly) a scholar (especially one that is highly regarded and respected by a certain group and is deemed to be an authority)
    1. (with ال(al-, the)) the Scholar (one of the titles and designations of Ibn Abbas, one of companions of Muhammad)
  2. (religion, chiefly Abrahamism) a well-versed religious scribe; a learned theologian; a religious authority
    1. (Christianity) a bishop
      Synonym: أُسْقُف(ʾusquf)
    2. (Judaism) a rabbi
      Synonyms: حَاخَام(ḥāḵām), حَكِيم(ḥakīm)
    3. (Islam) an esteemed authoritative theologian, an imam
      Synonyms: إِمَام(ʾimām), مَرْجَع(marjaʿ), مُقَلَّد(muqallad)
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ahrens, Karl (1930), “Christliches im Qoran. Eine Nachlese”, in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft[1] (in German), volume 84, page 20
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1886) Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (in German), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 247
  • Nöldeke, Theodor (1875) Mandäische Grammatik[2] (in German), Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, page 61
  • Geiger, Abraham (1833, 1902) Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen? (in German), 2nd edition, Leipzig: M. W. Kaufmann, page 48

Hijazi Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic حِبْر(ḥibr)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

حبر (ḥibirm (plural أحبار(ʔaḥbār))

  1. ink