天竺

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Chinese[edit]

day; sky; heaven (surname)
simp. and trad.
(天竺)
alt. forms 身毒

Etymology[edit]

First recorded use in the Traditions of the Western Regions (西域傳) portion of the Book of Han, finished in 111 CE. Itself a transcription of Old Persian *Hind-uka - hypocoristic of *Hinduš ("people living beyond the Indus").

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 2/3
Initial () (6) (9)
Final () (85) (4)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () IV III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰen/ /ʈɨuk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰen/ /ʈiuk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɛn/ /ȶiuk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɛn/ /ʈuwk̚/
Li
Rong
/tʰen/ /ȶiuk̚/
Wang
Li
/tʰien/ /ȶĭuk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰien/ /ȶi̯uk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tiān zhu
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tiān xiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ then › ‹ xen ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ˤi[n]/ /*l̥ˤi[n]/ (W dialect: l̥ˤ- > Hàn-time *xˤ- > MC x-)
English heaven heaven

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 3/3
No. 12387 17589
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰl'iːn/ /*tuɡ/
Notes hinduka

Proper noun[edit]

天竺

  1. (archaic) India or Nepal

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1
じく
Jinmeiyō
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

/tendiku//tenziku/

From Middle Chinese 天竺 ‎(*ten *djiuk?), a transcription from either of the following:

First mentioned in the 後漢書 ‎(Gokansho, Book of the Later Han), in volume 88, the 西域伝 ‎(Saiiki Den, Treatise on the Western Regions).

Proper noun[edit]

天竺 ‎(hiragana てんじく, romaji Tenjiku, historical hiragana てんぢく)

  1. (archaic) India
Synonyms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

天竺 ‎(hiragana てんじく, romaji Tenjiku, historical hiragana てんぢく)

  1. foreign or exotic
  2. overly spicy or hot
Usage notes[edit]

The prefix senses appear to have arisen after European traders arrived in Japan, by way of India.[3]

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

By extension from the character (“sky, heavens”), and possibly by association with the Himalayas.

Noun[edit]

天竺 ‎(hiragana てんじく, romaji tenjiku)

  1. the sky, the heavens
  2. a high place, the top of something, a summit

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan