印度

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Chinese[edit]

 
stamp; seal; mark; print; India (abbrev.)
capacity; degree; standard
simp. and trad.
(印度)
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印度

Etymology[edit]

A transcription of an exonym for India during the Tang dynasty.

Introduced by Xuanzang (a Chinese Buddhist monk who had travelled to India) in his book The Great Tang Records on the Western Regions [646 CE], Xuanzang proposed that this “correct” name be used, in preference to the many other alternative names for India:

天竺異議糾紛身毒賢豆正音印度 [Classical Chinese, trad.][▼ expand/hide]
天竺异议纠纷身毒贤豆正音印度 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
From: Xuanzang, Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, 646 CE
Xiáng fú Tiānzhú zhī chēng, yìyì jiūfēn, jiù yún Juāndú, huò yuē Xiándòu, jīn cóng zhèngyīn, yí yún Yìndù. [Pinyin]
When looking closely at the names for India (in the records), one finds that there are many different versions: formerly it was called Juandu, or Xiandou; but now (we should) follow the correct pronunciation, and adopt the name Yindu.

This Tang-dynasty transcription reflected a source form of *In-du or *In-dak, although the source language is unclear. It is unlikely to be an endonym used by the Indians, who ― as Xuanzang described ― used the names of the local states. Later in the same passage, Xuanzang explained the name Yin-du as one of the many names for “Moon” (in India), evidently referring to the Sanskrit word इन्दु (indu, Moon). Xuanzang also explained that:

群生輪迴不息……因而聖賢照臨 [Classical Chinese, trad.][▼ expand/hide]
群生轮回不息……因而圣贤照临 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
From: Xuanzang, Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, 646 CE
Yán zhū qúnshēng lúnhuí bùxī...... Yīn'ér pì yuè. Liáng yǐ qí tǔ shèngxián jì guǐ, dǎo fán yù wù, yuè zhàolín. [Pinyin]
The Moon was a symbolism for endless transmigrations of all beings, and [] the name for India was derived from “Moon”, since the land of India featured a succession of sages and prophets who provided guidance to the common people and things, like the moonlight.

Although now deemed etymologically unsound, this was likely suggesting that the transcription Yin-du was a phono-semantic matching, to be interpreted literally as “trace () + transmigration ()”.

The source language for this borrowing is unclear. The glottal-stop initial of the first syllable in this term is unusual; it is also reflected in 印特伽 (MC ʔiɪnH dək̚ ɡɨɑ), the Kuchean name for “India” recorded in Song Gaoseng Zhuan [988 CE]. On the basis of this, Wang et al. (2011: 8–9) proposed that Yin-du was borrowed from Tocharian B; compare Tocharian B yentuke (Indian), with a similar phonological shape.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2
Initial () (34) (7)
Final () (43) (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔiɪnH/ /duoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔinH/ /duoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔjenH/ /doH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔinH/ /dɔH/
Li
Rong
/ʔiĕnH/ /doH/
Wang
Li
/ĭĕnH/ /duH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ĕnH/ /dʱuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yìn

Proper noun[edit]

印度

  1. India

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (印度):

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
いん
Grade: 4

Grade: 3
on’yomi

Proper noun[edit]

印度 (katakana インド, rōmaji Indo)

  1. Rare spelling of インド. (abbr. (​In))

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Proper noun[edit]

印度 (Indo) (hangeul 인도)

  1. Hanja form? of 인도 (India).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Proper noun[edit]

印度

  1. Hán tự form of Ấn Độ, (“India”).