Wiktionary:Northern Thai transliteration

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link={{{imglink}}} This is a Wiktionary policy, guideline or common practices page. This is a draft proposal. It is unofficial, and it is unknown whether it is widely accepted by Wiktionary editors.
Policies – Entries: CFI - EL - NORM - NPOV - QUOTE - REDIR - DELETE. Languages: LT - AXX. Others: BLOCK - BOTS - VOTES.

We have not yet established a standard Northern Thai romanisation. See discussion page for ideas.

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

These are the rules concerning transliteration in Northern Thai entries.

Writing Systems[edit]

There are three major writing systems:

  1. Writing in the Thai alphabet, basically using the orthographic conventions of Siamese, including the sound values of the stop consonants. This system may be called 'thap sap' (ทับศัพท์), at least in Siamese. It is used in the recent translation of the New Testament.
  2. Writing in the Thai alphabet, basically using the vowel and tone conventions of Siamese, but with the consonant values from the Lanna script (script code Lana). This is close to being a transliteration of the Lanna script consonant system. This system may be called rup pariwat (รูปปริวรรต).
  3. Writing in the Lanna script. It is used in the recent translation of the New Testament.

Consonants[edit]

1 2 3 4a 4b 5 6 7 8 9a 9b 10a 10b 11 12a 12b 13
Thap sap tone class mid high low mid high low
Thap Sap Consonants (gɔɔ) (kɔ̌ɔ) (kɔ̌ɔ)[1] (kɔɔ) (kɔɔ)[1] (kɔɔ) (ngɔɔ) (jɔɔ) (chɔ̌ɔ) (chɔɔ)[2] (sɔɔ)[2] (chɔɔ)[2] (yɔɔ)
Lanna and rup pariwat tone class high low high low
Rup Pariwat Consonants (gɔɔ)[3] (kɔ̌ɔ) (kɔ̌ɔ)[1] (kɔɔ)[3] (kɔɔ) (kɔɔ) (ngɔɔ) (jɔɔ)[3] (chɔ̌ɔ)[3] (chɔɔ)[2][3] (sɔɔ)[2] (chɔɔ)[2][3] (yɔɔ)[3]
Lanna Consonants [1] [2] [2] [2]
Adapted Paiboon Initials g k g k ng j s ch j s ch ny
Finals k (k)[4] k (k)[4] k t (t)[4] t n
Royal Institute Initials k kh k kh ng ch s ch s ch ny[5]
Finals k (k)[4] k k (k)[4] k t (t)[4] t n
14 15 16 17a 17b 18 19 20 21 22 23a 23b 24 25 26 27 28 29
Thap sap tone class mid high low mid high low mid high
Thap Sap Consonants (dɔɔ) (dtɔɔ) (tɔ̌ɔ) (tɔɔ) (tɔɔ) (nɔɔ) (dɔɔ) (dtɔɔ) (tɔ̌ɔ) (tɔɔ) (tɔɔ) (nɔɔ) (bɔɔ) (bpɔɔ) (pɔ̌ɔ) (fɔ̌ɔ)
Lanna and rup pariwat tone class mid high low mid high low mid high
Rup Pariwat Consonants (dɔɔ) (dtɔɔ)[3] (tɔ̌ɔ) (tɔɔ)[3] (tɔɔ) (nɔɔ) (dɔɔ) (dtɔɔ)[3] (tɔ̌ɔ) (tɔɔ)[3] (tɔɔ) (nɔɔ) (bɔɔ) (bpɔɔ)[3] (pɔ̌ɔ) (fɔ̌ɔ)
Lanna Consonants [6]
Adapted Paiboon Initials d dt t dt t n d dt t dt t n b bp p f
Finals t t p (p)[4]
Royal Institute Initials d t th t th n d t th t th n b p ph f
Finals t t p (p)[4]
30a 30b 31 32 33 34a 34b 34c 35a 35b 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44
Thap sap tone class low low mid low high low mid low
Thap Sap Consonants (pɔɔ) (fɔɔ)[2] (pɔɔ) (mɔɔ) (yɔɔ) (rɔɔ)[7][8] (lɔɔ)[2][8] (wɔɔ) (sɔ̌ɔ) (sɔ̌ɔ) (sɔ̌ɔ)[2] (hɔ̌ɔ) (lɔɔ) (ɔɔ) (hɔɔ)
Lanna and rup pariwat tone class low low mid low high low mid low
Rup Pariwat Consonants (pɔɔ)[3] (fɔɔ)[2] (pɔɔ) (mɔɔ) (yɔɔ)[3] อ‍ย [9] (rɔɔ)[3][8] (lɔɔ)[2][8] (wɔɔ) (sɔ̌ɔ) (sɔ̌ɔ) (sɔ̌ɔ)[2] (hɔ̌ɔ) (lɔɔ) (ɔɔ) (hɔɔ)
Lanna Consonants [2] ᨿ [8] [2][8] [2]
Adapted Paiboon Initials bp p f p m ny ny, y[10] y h, l, r[10] r l w s h l [11] h
Finals p i[12] -[13] n o[12] t (h)[4] n (h)[4]
Royal Institute Initials p ph f ph m ny[5] ny[5], y[10] y h, l, r[10] r l w s h l [11] h
Finals p i[12] -[13] n o[12] t (h)[4] n (h)[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Obsolete or antiquarian letters
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 Western loanwords sometimes use initials as alternative finals instead.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 Pronunciation in rup pariwat context is to be determined.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 Finals in parentheses are theoretical and they do not occur.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 The Royal Thai General System does not address this initial sound. This is an extension in keeping with its modern principles. The original design would have been more likely to choose 'ñ'
  6. ^ Generally used in loans from Pali even when pronounced as though written with ; such cases are to be transliterated as though written with .
  7. ^ Final ร without a vowel mark = ɔɔn; Medial รร = a
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 ฤ = รึ (rʉ, rue); ฤๅ = รือ: (rʉʉ, rue); ฦ = ลึ (lʉ, lue); ฦๅ = ลือ: (lʉʉ, lue). However, their pronunciation might change in words.
  9. ^ Often printed as a ligature
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 According to sound
  11. 11.0 11.1 Initial consonant treated as implicit in transliteration.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Part of a diphthong
  13. 13.0 13.1 Does not occur as a final

Dependent Vowels[edit]

Because of grave deficiencies in Tai Tham rendering, the Lanna script vowels are shown on ᨠ or, where more appropriate, ᨣ or ᨻᩖ. For greater clarity, implicit vowels are shown by the dotted circle for both scripts.

1a 1b 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14a 14b 15 16a 16b 17 18 19 20 21a 21b 22a 22b 23a 23b 24a 24b
Thai script vowels Open syllable ◌ะ ◌า ◌ิ ◌ี ◌ึ ◌ือ ◌ุ ◌ู เ◌ะ เ◌ แ◌ะ แ◌ โ◌ะ โ◌ เ◌าะ ◌อ เ◌อะ เ◌อ เ◌ียะ เ◌ีย เ◌ือะ เ◌ือ ◌ัวะ ◌ัว
Closed syllable ◌ั ◌ื เ◌็ แ◌็ ◌็อ เ◌ิ เ◌ีย เ◌ือ ◌ว
Lanna script vowels Open syllable ᨠᩡ ᨠᩣ or ᨣᩤ ᨠᩥ ᨠᩦ ᨠᩧ ᨠᩨ ᨠᩩ ᨣᩪ ᨠᩮᩡ ᨠᩮ ᨠᩯᩡ ᨠᩯ ᨠᩰᩡ ᨠᩰ ᨠᩮᩣ or ᨣᩮᩤ ᨠᩰᩬᩡ ᨠᩬᩴ ᨠᩴ ᨠᩮᩬᩥᩡ ᨠᩮᩬᩥ[1] ᨠ᩠ᨿᩮᩡ ᨠ᩠ᨿᩮ ᨠᩮᩬᩥᩋᩡ ᨠᩮᩬᩨᩋᩡ ᨠᩮᩬᩥᩋ ᨠᩮᩬᩨᩋ ᨠ᩠ᩅᩫᩡ ᨠᩖᩫᩅᩡ[2] ᨠ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨠᩖᩫᩅ[2]
Closed syllable ᨠᩢ ᨠᩮᩢ ᨠᩯᩢ ᨠᩫ ᨠᩰᩫ ᨠᩬᩢ ᨠᩮᩥᩢ ᨠᩮᩥ ᨠ᩠ᨿᩢ ᨠ᩠ᨿ ᨠᩮᩬᩥᩢ ᨠᩮᩬᩨᩢ ᨠᩮᩬᩥ[1] ᨠᩮᩬᩨ ᨠ᩠ᩅᩢ ᨠᩖᩢᩅ[3] ᨠ᩠ᩅ ᨠᩖᩅ[4]
Paiboon a aa i ii ʉ ʉʉ u uu e ee ɛ ɛɛ o oo ɔ ɔɔ ə əə ia iia ʉa ʉʉa ua uua
Royal Institute a i ue u e ae o oe ia uea ua

Notes[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 The significance of ᨠᩮᩬᩥ depends on whether it has a final consonant.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Attestation required - occurs in Lao
  3. ^ Attestation needed
  4. ^ Occurs in the variant spelling ᩉᩖᩅ᩠ᨦ of ᩉᩖ᩠ᩅᨦ

Dependent Vowels plus Coda[edit]

This does not list predictable combinations, such as ◌าย/ᨠᩣ᩠ᨿ/aai.

25a 25b 26 27 28a 28b 28c 28d 29 30 31 32
Thai script rimes ◌ำ ไ◌ ใ◌ เ◌า ◌ิว เ◌ย
Lanna script rimes ᨠᩣᩴ ᨣᩤᩴ ᨠᩱ ᨠᩲ[1] ᨠᩮᩢᩣ ᨣᩮᩢᩤ ᨠᩳ ᨠᩪᩦ[2] ᨠᩥ᩠ᩅ ᨠᩮᩥ᩠ᨿ ᨠᩢ ᨠᩢᩣ
Paiboon am ai ao iu əəi ak aak
Royal Institute am ai ao io oei ak

No. 32 generalises to the combination of mai sat with vowels above or below.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Obsolete or antiquarian
  2. ^ All examples occur with tone-2.

Tone marks[edit]

NOTE: This page is currently being created by adapting the policy for Thai. This section has yet to reach the level of an initial draft. The other sections may be considered ready.

Diatonemes[edit]

Although the presence of six tones across Northern Thai is widespread, there are differences in realisation across the region. To establish the diatonemes of the language, it is helpful to go back to the Gedney Box and give concrete examples. The standard four-fold division of initials is more than adequate to encompass Northern Thai, Thai and Lao. Examples are given in the tables in the form (Chiang Mai) thap sap / Lanna script / (Siamese cognate).


Example Words
A B C DS DL
1 A1 B1 C1 D1S D1L
ขา/ᨡᩣ (leg)/ขา (kǎa)
หู/ᩉᩪ (ear)/หู (hǔu)

หัว/ᩉ᩠ᩅᩫ (head)/หัว (hǔua)
หมา/ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ (dog)/หมา (mǎa)

เข่า/ᨡᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ (knee)/เข่า (kào)
ไข่/ᨡᩱ᩵ (egg)/ไข่ (kài)

ผ่า/ᨹ᩵ᩣ (chop)/ผ่า (pàa)
ใหม่/ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ (new)/ใหม่ (mài)

หน้า/ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ (face)/หน้า (nâa)
เสื้อ/ᩈᩮᩬᩥ᩶ᩋ (cloth)/เสื้อ (sʉ̂ʉa)

เข้า/ᨡᩮ᩶ᩣ (rice)/ข้าว (kâao)
ห้า/ᩉ᩶ᩣ (five)/ห้า (hâa)
ผ้า/ᨹ᩶ᩣ (cloth)/ผ้า (pâa)

ผัก/ᨹᩢ᩠ᨠ (vegetable)/ผัก (pàk)
สุก/ᩈᩩᩢ (cooked)/สุก (sùk)

ขุด/ᨡᩩᨯ (dig)/ขุด (kùt)
หมัด/ᩉ᩠ᨾᩢᨯ (flea)/หมัด (màt)

ศอก/ᩈᩬᨠ (elbow)/ศอก (sɔ̀ɔk)
สาก/ᩈᩣ᩠ᨠ (pestle)/สาก (sàak)

หาบ/ᩉᩣ᩠ᨷ (carry)/หาบ (hàap)

2 A2 B2 C2 D2S D2L
ต๋า/ᨲᩣ (eye)/ตา (dtaa)
กิ๋น/ᨠᩥ᩠ᨶ (eat)/กิน (gin)

ก๋า/ᨠᩣ (crow)/กา (gaa)
ปี๋/ᨸᩖᩦ (year)/ปี (bpii)
ป๋า/ᨸᩖᩣ (fish)/ปลา (bplaa)

ไก่/ᨠᩱ᩵ (chicken)/ไก่ (gài)
เต่า/ᨲᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ (turtle)/เต่า (dtào)
ก้าง/ᨠ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ (fishbone)/ก้าง (gâang)
เก้า/ᨠᩮᩢ᩶ᩣ (nine)/เก้า (gâao)

ป้า/ᨸ᩶ᩣ (aunt)/ป้า (bpâa)
ใต้/ᨲᩱ᩶ (under)/ใต้ (dtâai)
ต้ม/ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨾ (boil)/ต้ม (dtôm)

เป็ด/ᨸᩮᩢ᩠ᨯ (duck)/เป็ด (bpèt)
เจ็ด/ᨧᩮᩢ᩠ᨯ (seven)/เจ็ด (jèt)

กบ/ᨠᩫ᩠ᨷ (frog)/กบ (gòp)
เจ็บ/ᨧᩮᩢ᩠ᨷ (pain)/เจ็บ (jèp)

ปาก/ᨸᩢᩣ (mouth)/ปาก (bpàak)
ตาก/ᨲᩣ᩠ᨠ (dry)/ตาก (dtàak)

ปีก/ᨸᩦ᩠ᨠ (wing)/ปีก (bpìik)
แปด/ᨸᩯ᩠ᨯ (eight)/แปด (bpɛ̀ɛt)

3 A3 B3 C3 D3S D3L
บิน/ᨷᩥ᩠ᨶ (fly)/บิน (bin)
ดำ/ᨯᩣᩴ (black)/ดำ (dam)

แอว/ᩋᩯ᩠ᩅ (waist)/เอว (eeo)
ดาว/ᨯᩣ᩠ᩅ (star)/ดาว (daao)
แดง/ᨯᩯ᩠ᨦ (red)/แดง (dɛɛng)

บ่า/ᨷ᩵ᩤ (shoulder)/บ่า (bàa)
อิ่ม/ᩋᩥ᩠᩵ᨾ (enough)/อิ่ม (ìm)

บ่าว/ᨷ᩵ᩤ᩠ᩅ (servant)/บ่าว (bàao)

อ้า/ᩋ᩶ᩣ (open)/อ้า (âa)
บ้า/ᨷ᩶ᩤ (mad)/บ้า (bâa)
เบ็ด/ᨷᩮᩢ᩠ᨯ (fishhook)/เบ็ด (bèt)
อก/ᩋᩫ᩠ᨠ (chest)/อก (òk)

ดิบ/ᨯᩥ᩠ᨷ (raw)/ดิบ (dìp)

ดอก/ᨯᩬᩢ (flower)/ดอก (dɔ̀ɔk)
แดด/ᨯᩯ᩠ᨯ (sunlight)/แดด (dɛ̀ɛt)

บอด/ᨷᩬᨯ (blind)/บอด (bɔ̀ɔt)
อาบ/ᩋᩣ᩠ᨷ (bath)/อาบ (àap)

4 A4 B4 C4 D4S D4L
มือ/ᨾᩨ (hand)/มือ (mʉʉ)
นา/ᨶᩣ (field)/นา (naa)

งู/ᨦᩪ (snake)/งู (nguu)
ลุง/ᩃᩩᨦ (uncle)/ลุง (lung)
ตา/ᨴᩤ (smear)/ทา (taa)
คำ/ᨤᩣᩴ (gold)/คำ (kam)

ป้อ/ᨻᩬ᩵ (father)/พ่อ (pɔ̂ɔ)
แม่/ᨾᩯ᩵ (mother)/แม่ (mɛ̂ɛ)

พ่อง/ᨻᩕᩬ᩵ᨦ (some)/พร่อง (prɔ̂ng)

น้า/ᨶ᩶ᩣ (aunt)/น้า (náa)
ไม้/ᨾᩱ᩶ (wood)/ไม้ (máai)

น้อง/ᨶᩬ᩶ᨦ (younger sibling)/น้อง (nɔ́ɔng)
ม้า/ᨾ᩶ᩣ (horse)/ม้า (máa)
ก๊า/ᨣ᩶ᩤ (trade)/ค้า (káa)

มด/ᨾᩫ᩠ᨯ (ant)/มด (mót)
วัด/ᩅᩢ᩠ᨯ (temple)/วัด (wát)

นก/ᨶᩫ᩠ᨠ (bird)/นก (nók)
ซัก/ᨪᩢ᩠ᨠ (wash)/ซัก (sák)
มัด/ᨾᩢ᩠ᨯ (bind)/มัด (mát)
ปั๊ด/ᨻᩢ᩠ᨯ (blow)/พัด (pát)

มืด/ᨾᩨ᩠ᨯ (dark)/มืด (mʉ̂ʉt)
ลูก/ᩃᩪᩢ (child)/ลูก (lûuk)

เลือด/ᩃᩮᩬᩥᨯ (blood)/เลือด (lʉ̂ʉat)
มีด/ᨾᩦ᩠ᨯ (knife)/มีด (mîit)
คอก/ᨤᩬᨠ (prison)/คอก (kɔ̂ɔk)

The mapping of the cells of the Gedney box is shown in the coloured table. The identification of the tones on short dead syllables with tones on live syllables is not necessarily consistent across accents.
Cell Naming
A B C DS DL
1 A1 B1 C1 D1S D1L
2 A2 B2 C2 D2S D2L
3 A3 B3 C3 D3S D3L
4 A4 B4 C4 D4S D4L
NOTE TO EDITORS: Please ensure that there is a comparable set of tone descriptions across dialects. There is a confusing tendency for descriptions to vary from researcher to researcher - perhaps because of variations in informants! By all means supplement consistent descriptions with alternative descriptions.

Northern Thai has six tones on live syllables (tone classes A, B and C) and four tones on dead syllables (tone class D).

Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Lampang Phrae Bangkok[1]
Sound Wiktionary
Diacritic
Sound Sound Sound Sound Wiktionary
Diacritic
The six live tones are:[2]
Cells A1 and A2 ˩˩˦ 114 ě ˩˩˧ 113 ˩˩˧ 113 ˩˩˧ 113 ˩˩˥ 115[3] ě
Cells A3 and A4 ˧˧ 33 ē ˧˧˦ 334 ˧˧˦ 334 ˧˧˦ 334 ˧˧ 33[4] ē
Cells B1, B2 and B3 ˩˩ 11 è ˩˩ 11 ˨˨ 22 ˧˧ 33 ˩˩ 11 è
Cell B4 ˦˦˩ 441 ê ˧˧˩ 331 ˧˧˩ 331 ˧˧˩ 331 ˥˥˩ 551[5] ê
Cells C1, C2 and C3 ˥˥˨ 552 e᷆ ˥˥ 55 ˥˥ 55 ˥˥ 55 ˥˥˩ 551[5] ê
Cell C4 ˦˦˥˧ 4453 é ˥˥˧ 553 ˥˥˧ 553 ˥˥˧ 553 ˦˥˧ 453 é
The four dead tones are:[2]
Cells D1S, D2S and D3S ˦˦˥ 445 ě ˦˦˥ 445 ˦˦˥ 445 ˦˦˥ 445 ˩˩ 11[6] è
Cell D4S ˥˥ 55 é ˥˥˦ 554 ˥˥ 55 ˥˥˦ 554 ˥˥ 55 é
Cells D1L, D2L and D3L ˩˩ 11 è ˨˨ 22 ˨˨ 22 ˧˧ 33 ˩˩ 11[6] è
Cell D4L ˦˦˩ 441 ê ˧˧˩ 331 ˧˧˩ 331 ˧˧˩ 331 ˥˥˩ 551 ê
  1. ^ Siamese, not Northern Thai!
  2. 2.0 2.1 Katsura, Makio (September 1969), “Notes on Some Phonological Aspects of Northern Thai”, in Tonan Ajia Kenkyu (The Southeast Asian Studies)[1], volume 7, issue 2, pages 148–162
  3. ^ For cells A1, A2 and A3
  4. ^ For cell A4
  5. 5.0 5.1 These two live tones are the same in Siamese.
  6. 6.0 6.1 These two dead tones are the same in Siamese.
0 1 2 3 4
Tone marks no mark ◌่ ◌้ ◌๊ ◌๋
Paiboon High class ◌̌ ◌̀ ◌̂
Mid class ◌́ ◌̌
Low class ◌̂ ◌́
Royal Institute not present at all

Lexical Ordering[edit]

For the Thai script, the Thai lexical ordering should be used.

For the Lanna script, we need evidence. The following principles appear to be widely agreed:

  1. Ordering is done syllable by syllable (this can be hard to implement), and there might be some difference between phonetic and alphabetical syllables.
  2. Differences of tone mark have the lowest priority.
  3. Consonants and vowels count equally.
  4. Short vowels precede long vowels.

There is not necessarily agreement on the positional of the additional consonants, i.e. those not used for Pali. Additionally, do the vowel letters come first or (almost) last? Are consonants split according to sound (as in the MFL)?


Numerals[edit]

European 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Thai (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
Religious
Secular