traho

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Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *traɣō, seemingly from Proto-Indo-European *tregʰ- (to drag, pull?), a variation of *dʰregʰ- (to pull, draw, drag).

The closest IE cognates are Old Irish tethraig (ran away, receded), Middle Welsh treul (trouble, weakness) < Proto-Celtic *trāglo-. Possibly connected with Proto-Celtic *tregess (foot), Gothic 𐌸𐍂𐌰𐌲𐌾𐌰𐌽 (þragjan, to run), Proto-Slavic *tragъ, but semantically problematic. De Vaan deems a connection with Proto-Germanic *draganą (to drag, draw) as formally impossible, but this could be another reflex of a substrate loanword.[1]

Weiss prefers a connection with Proto-Germanic *draganą (to drag, draw), under the assumptions that Grassmann's law operated in Latin before liquids so that the resulting initial deaspirated cluster *dr- would then regularly appear as tr- in Latin as it does word-medially.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

trahō (present infinitive trahere, perfect active trāxī, supine tractum); third conjugation

  1. I drag, pull.
    Synonyms: efferō, portō, ferō, gerō, vehō, addūcō
  2. I trail.
  3. I extract, withdraw.
  4. I plunder, squander.
    Synonyms: dēpraedor, praedor, dīripiō, populor, expugnō, agō
  5. I draw out, extend, lengthen, prolong.
    Synonyms: extendō, distendō, prōlongō, porrigō, prōferō, explicō, prōtrahō
  6. (of time) I protract, drag out, linger
    Synonyms: retardō, moror, cūnctor, tardō, prōtrahō, dubitō, extrahō, differō
    Antonyms: ruō, accurrō, currō, festīnō, prōvolō, properō, corripiō, affluō, mātūrō
  7. I weigh, ponder, consider
    Synonyms: cōnsīderō, dubitō, ponderō, pendō, perpendō, dēlīberō, circumspiciō, cōnsultō, putō, reputō, videō
  8. (figuratively) I attract, draw (someone; their attention)
  9. (by extension) I attract the support of, sway, win over.
    Synonyms: persuādeō, convincō, perpellō, flectō, admoneō
    • 27 BCE – 25 BCE, Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita libri 26.1:
      Ea tum cura maxime intentos habebat Romanos, non ab ira tantum, quae in nullam unquam ciuitatem iustior fuit, quam quod urbs tam nobilis ac potens, sicut defectione sua traxerat aliquot populos, ita recepta inclinatura rursus animos uidebatur ad ueteris imperii respectum.
      This concern in particular troubled the mindful Romans at the time, not so much because of anger, which has never been more justified against any other city, rather because a city so noble and powerful, in the same way that it had attracted the support of a number of communities by its revolt, was thought would again turn attention back towards respect for the previous government once recaptured.

Conjugation[edit]

   Conjugation of trahō (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present trahō trahis trahit trahimus trahitis trahunt
imperfect trahēbam trahēbās trahēbat trahēbāmus trahēbātis trahēbant
future traham trahēs trahet trahēmus trahētis trahent
perfect trāxī trāxistī trāxit trāximus trāxistis trāxērunt,
trāxēre
pluperfect trāxeram trāxerās trāxerat trāxerāmus trāxerātis trāxerant
future perfect trāxerō trāxeris trāxerit trāxerimus trāxeritis trāxerint
passive present trahor traheris,
trahere
trahitur trahimur trahiminī trahuntur
imperfect trahēbar trahēbāris,
trahēbāre
trahēbātur trahēbāmur trahēbāminī trahēbantur
future trahar trahēris,
trahēre
trahētur trahēmur trahēminī trahentur
perfect tractus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect tractus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect tractus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present traham trahās trahat trahāmus trahātis trahant
imperfect traherem traherēs traheret traherēmus traherētis traherent
perfect trāxerim trāxerīs trāxerit trāxerīmus trāxerītis trāxerint
pluperfect trāxissem trāxissēs trāxisset trāxissēmus trāxissētis trāxissent
passive present trahar trahāris,
trahāre
trahātur trahāmur trahāminī trahantur
imperfect traherer traherēris,
traherēre
traherētur traherēmur traherēminī traherentur
perfect tractus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect tractus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present trahe trahite
future trahitō trahitō trahitōte trahuntō
passive present trahere trahiminī
future trahitor trahitor trahuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives trahere trāxisse tractūrum esse trahī tractum esse tractum īrī
participles trahēns tractūrus tractus trahendus,
trahundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
trahendī trahendō trahendum trahendō tractum tractū

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • traho”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • traho”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • traho in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to trace one's descent from some one: originem ab aliquo trahere, ducere
    • to be guided by ambition: laudis studio trahi
    • to feel an attraction for study: litterarum studio trahi
    • to feel an attraction for study: trahi, ferri ad litteras
    • to protract, prolong a war: bellum ducere, trahere, extrahere
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “trahō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 627
  2. ^ Weiss, Michael (2018), “Limited Latin Grassmann's Law: Do We Need It?”, in Dieter Gunkel, Stephanie W. Jamison, Angelo O. Mercado and Kazuhiko Yoshida, editors, Vina Diem Celebrent: Studies in Linguistics and Philology in Honor of Brent Vine, Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press, pages 438-447