生活

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Chinese[edit]

 
to be born; to give birth; life; to grow
 
to live; alive; living; work; workmanship
simp. and trad.
(生活)

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (生活, reconstructed)
Character (生), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 生 (21)
Final: 庚
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 所庚切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃɣæŋ/ /ʂɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɯaŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃaŋ/
Character (生), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 生 (21)
Final: 庚
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 所敬切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃɣæŋH/ /ʂɐŋH/ /ʃɐŋH/ /ʃɯaŋH/ /ʂaɨjŋH/ /ʃɐŋH/ /ʃaŋH/
Character (活), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 末
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 古活切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kʷɑt̚/ /kwat̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/
Character (活), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 末
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 戸括切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦuɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɦʷɑt̚/ /ɦwat̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (生活, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shēng ‹ sraeng › /*sreŋ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?)/ bear, be born; live
shēng ‹ sraeng › /*sreŋ/ fresh, raw
shēng ‹ srjaeng › /*sreŋ (or *s.reŋ ?)/ bear, be born; live
huó ‹ hwat › /*[g]ʷˤat/ to live

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11312 0 /*sʰleːŋ/
11322 0 /*sreŋs/
7568 3 /*koːd/
7585 3 /*ɡoːd/

Noun[edit]

生活

  1. life; existence; livelihood; lifestyle

Verb[edit]

生活

  1. to live; to exist

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (生活):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 1
かつ
Grade: 2
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

生活 (hiragana せいかつ, romaji seikatsu)

  1. life; livelihood; daily living.

Usage notes[edit]

生活 is distinct from (いのち, inochi, life), because it refers to daily life and livelihood as it is experienced, whereas 命 refers to life as a whole (from birth to death), or as an abstract concept. Both are generally translated as life, however, as this distinction is not normally made in English.

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Verb[edit]

生活 + する (hiragana せいかつする, romaji seikatsu suru)

  1. live a life

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this word

Noun[edit]

生活 (saenghwal) (hangeul 생활)

  1. Hanja form? of 생활, “lifestyle, way of life, daily living”.

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

生活

  1. Hán tự form of sinh hoạt, "life"