Wiktionary:About Welsh

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See also Category:Welsh language

(based on Wiktionary:Entry layout explained)

Note 1: This guide is intended to provide guidelines both for creating Welsh entries on English Wiktionary as well as for adding Welsh translations to English words. The main guidelines for creating any entry on English Wiktionary is set forth in Wiktionary:Entry layout explained; this page is an addition to that page, not a replacement.

Note 2: If a change occurs in the basic wiktionary template (currently at Wiktionary:Entry layout explained) that affects Welsh entries, then that change should be reflected here.


Lemmas[edit]

For nouns, the lemma form is the singular in most cases, but for nouns where the singulative is formed by adding a suffix to the plural (e.g. aderyn (bird), singulative of adar (birds)), the plural is the lemma.

For adjectives, the lemma form is the masculine singular. Most adjectives have only one form anyway, but some have a distinct feminine and/or plural.

For verbs, the lemma form is the verbal noun.

Welsh templates[edit]

See also Category:Welsh templates

There are several templates designed to both make entry of new words easier and to standardize format between entries.

Welsh headword-line templates:

Welsh inflection-table templates:

  • {{cy-personal-prop}} – for prepositions with personal forms
  • {{cy-conj-colloquial}} – for the colloquial conjugation of verbs
  • {{cy-conj-cons}} – for the literary conjugation of verbs whose root ends in a consonant
  • {{cy-conj-a}} – for the literary conjugation of polysllybic verbs whose root ends in a
  • {{cy-conj-i}} – for the literary conjugation of verbs whose root ends in i
  • {{cy-conj-w}} – for the literary conjugation of verbs whose root ends in w

Definition-line templates for nonlemma forms (not Welsh-specific, so be sure to remember |lang=cy):

  • {{soft mutation of|term|lang=cy}} – for soft-mutation forms
  • {{mutation of|term|lang=cy}} – can be used for other mutation forms, but does not specify which mutation it is
  • {{form of|XYZ|term|lang=cy}} – can be used to specify which mutation it is (e.g. {{form of|nasal mutation|Caerdydd|lang=cy}} at Nghaerdydd)
  • {{plural of|term|lang=cy}} – can be used for plural forms of both nouns and adjectives
  • {{feminine of|term|lang=cy}} – can be used for feminine forms of adjectives
  • {{inflection of|term||...|lang=cy}} – can be used for verb forms and conjugated preposition forms; see Template:inflection of/documentation for instructions

Welsh in non-Welsh entries[edit]

Besides Welsh entries, Welsh words frequently appear in two places within entries for words in other languages: the Translations section of English entries, as well as the Etymology section of non-Welsh words derived from Welsh.

Welsh translations for English words[edit]

Further guidance is given in the main article Wiktionary:Translations.

Welsh words will appear in the Translations sections of English words. In general, only the lemma form of the Welsh translation should be given, as described for each part of speech listed above.

An abbreviated table from the entry for horse is shown below: (Click [Show] to expand the translation table.)


The template {{t}} should be used, it speeds up entry and will enable any later, global changes in format to be made.

The syntax below will give the output in grey which follows:

* Welsh: {{t|cy|ceffyl|m}}
* Welsh: ceffyl m

The {{t}} template is explained at Template:t/documentation; it has the following arguments:

  1. cy – the ISO code for Welsh
  2. ceffyl – the word
  3. m – the gender: m, f, or mf (m & f). This is only used for nouns.

Note that the line actually provides links to two other entries. The text ceffyl links to the entry for the Welsh word ceffyl in the English Wiktionary. The following superscript (cy)   provides a link to the entry for ceffyl on the Welsh edition of Wiktionary (Wiciadur), specifically to the relevant word should it exist there.

One variant of the {{t}} template is {{t+}}, which adds a link to the corresponding Wiciadur entry. A bot automatically converts {{t}} to {{t+}} when Wiciadur has the entry, so you don't need to worry about it.

Etymology of non-Welsh words[edit]

Some words in English (and other languages) derive from Welsh. These words will appear in the Descendants section of the Welsh entry (as described above), but the Etymology section of each of those words should also link back to the Welsh word from which they descend.

A simple example from the English entry for Guinevere is shown below. The syntax on the following line will give the output in grey that follows:

From {{etyl|cy|en}} {{m|cy|Gwenhwyfar}}; {{m|cy|gwen||white, fair}} and {{m|cy|hwyfar||smooth}}.
From Welsh Gwenhwyfar; gwen (white, fair) and hwyfar (smooth)

The first template {{etyl}} uses the parameter cy to identify the word as having a Welsh origin, and links to the Wikipedia article about the Welsh language. This template takes two arguments: the ISO code for the language or origin, in this case cy, and the ISO code for the language of the entry, in this case en to indicate English. For English words that come from Welsh, the second argument is optional. For all other languages, this argument is required, since the template will categorize the entry by etymology. In the example above, the template adds the entry to Category:Welsh derivations. Since the template builds the category name directly from the given ISO code, a missing or incorrect argument will cause to entry to be categorized incorrectly. More on the use of this template and others like it is available at Wiktionary:Etymology/language templates.

The second template {{m}} is explained at Template:mention/documentation. In the example above, it has the following arguments for gwen:

  1. cy – the language code for Welsh
  2. gwen – the word; this argument identifies the name of the page to be linked.
  3. a blank placeholder argument
  4. white, fair – the English translation

The first two arguments are required, as they provide the target for the link generated by {{m}}. The third and fourth arguments are not required for the template to function. The third argument will be blank for most Welsh entries, and must not include the content intended for the fourth position. It must be present only if the fourth argument is also present; if the fourth argument is omitted, the third can be omitted as well (as in {{m|cy|Gwenhwyfar}}). The fourth argument may be omitted in some cases, such as in the first use in the example above. Despite this, it is good practice to include the fourth argument under most circumstances.

Sources[edit]

As usual at Wiktionary, Welsh words are preferably attestable in use; i.e. inclusion in other dictionaries and word lists alone is less preferred. For large languages, Google Books is the usual go-to place for Wiktionarians looking for usage attestations, but there is very little Welsh at Google Books.

The National Library of Wales has made available Welsh Newspapers Online, a searchable database of Welsh newspapers (in both English and Welsh) from 1804 to 1919.

The Welsh Wikisource has some texts that can be searched as well.

When searching for words, remember to look for mutated and inflected forms as well!

Offline sources are acceptable too, of course: printed books, newspapers, magazines, etc., can all be used to attest Welsh words, but searching offline sources is obviously much more time- and research-intensive than searching online sources.

Welsh is a limited-documentation language, so entries are considered sufficiently verified if a single mention (not necessarily use) is found, for example a listing in a published dictionary or word list. Nevertheless, uses are preferable, and there are so many published dictionaries of Welsh available that entries should only be made if a word is found in multiple dictionaries. This will help us avoid intentional or accidental fictitious entries from other dictionaries being replicated here. Terms should display the {{LDL|cy}} template if they use fewer than three uses to verify an entry, which produces the following output:

This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. Welsh is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

Additional help[edit]

Help from the community[edit]

Sometimes, we know there is a problem, but don't know what to do to correct the problem. If you should find a Welsh entry with a problem that you do not know how to correct, there are several ways to approach the situation.

  1. Mark the page with {{attention|cy}}. This template will add the entry to Category:Welsh terms needing attention, where another user can then find and correct the problem. It helps if you include comments on the entry's talk page explaining what the problem is or why you think the page needs attention.
  2. Mark the page with {{rfc}}. this is a more general cleanup tag, and it allows the user to include reasons or concerns as an argument in the template. Be sure to also add an entry to WT:RFC concerning the word so that other editors will be made aware of the problem.
  3. Raise the issue on Wiktionary talk:About Welsh. Note that this approach is primarily for issues of style, formatting, categorization, and not for specifics of content.

Other Welsh aids[edit]