lind

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See also: Lind

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English lind, linde, from Old English lind, from Proto-West Germanic *lindu, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Cognate with Dutch linde, German Linde, Swedish lind. Cognate to Albanian lëndë (wood, timber, material).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lind (plural linds)

  1. (obsolete) the lime tree, or linden tree

Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Nasal present of lej. From Proto-Albanian *(a)liienT-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂el- (to grow, feed). Possibly, an original present participle. Compare Old English leodan, Old Saxon liodan, Old High German liotan, Old Norse loðenn (to grow), lind (wellspring).

Verb[edit]

lind (first-person singular past tense linda, participle lindur)

  1. to give birth, bear (child)

Synonyms[edit]


Danish[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse lind.

Adjective[edit]

lind

  1. soft
  2. thin
Inflection[edit]
Inflection of lind
Positive Comparative Superlative
Common singular lind 2
Neuter singular lindt 2
Plural linde 2
Definite attributive1 linde
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.

Etymology 2[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

From Old Norse lind.

Noun[edit]

lind c (singular definite linden, plural indefinite linde)

  1. linden, lime, basswood (Tilia)
Inflection[edit]

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *lintu, from Proto-Finno-Ugric *lunta or *linta, compare with Finnish lintu, Ter Sami lonnˈt, Mansi лунт (lunt) and Hungarian lúd.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈlind̥/, [ˈlʲind̥]

Noun[edit]

lind (genitive linnu, partitive lindu)

  1. bird

Declension[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German linde, from Old High German lind, lindi, from Proto-West Germanic *linþ(ī). Compare English lithe.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /lɪnt/
  • (file)

Adjective[edit]

lind (strong nominative masculine singular linder, comparative linder, superlative am lindesten or am lindsten)

  1. (archaic, poetic) mild; gentle

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • lind” in Duden online
  • lind” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Icelandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Probably related to sense 2 (linden tree)

Noun[edit]

lind f (genitive singular lindar, nominative plural lindir)

  1. spring (place where water emerges from the ground)
Declension[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse lind, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Noun[edit]

lind f (genitive singular lindar, nominative plural lindir)

  1. lime, linden (Tilia)
Declension[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • The Journal of English and Germanic Philology. (1934). United States: Journal Publishing Company, p. 93

Livonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *lintu.

Noun[edit]

lind

  1. bird

Etymology 2[edit]

Likely from Proto-Finnic *lentädäk. i may be by analogy to "bird".

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

lind

  1. (Salaca) to fly

Ludian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *lintu.

Noun[edit]

lind

  1. bird

Middle English[edit]

Noun[edit]

lind (plural lyndes)

  1. Alternative form of lynde.

References[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nb

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse lind, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Noun[edit]

lind f or m (definite singular linda or linden, indefinite plural linder, definite plural lindene)

  1. lime, linden (Tilia)

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse lind, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Noun[edit]

lind f (definite singular linda, indefinite plural linder, definite plural lindene)

  1. lime, linden (Tilia)

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *lindu, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lind f (nominative plural linde)

  1. lime, linden
  2. (poetic) shield (made from linden wood)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *lindos, possibly from Proto-Indo-European *leyH- (to flow). The two differently-inflecting nouns are closely related, but their morphologies are mysterious.[1]

Noun[edit]

lind f (genitive linde)

  1. a body of water: pool, lake
    • c. 845, St. Gall Glosses on Priscian, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1975, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. II, pp. 49–224, Sg. 102a2
      .i. lind te
      i.e. hot pool [The glossator having misunderstood Latin termes (branch) as being related to therma (hot bath)]

Inflection[edit]

Feminine ī-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative lindL lindL lindH, lindi
Vocative lindL lindL lindH, lindi
Accusative lindN, lindi lindL lindH, lindi
Genitive lindeH lindeL lindeN
Dative lindL, lindi lindib lindib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Noun[edit]

lind n (genitive lenda)

  1. drink
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 7d9
      [] hi sunt tra ↄricc frissa lind serb in chúrsactha, lase fo·ruillecta beóil in chalich di mil cosse anall []
      [] Herein, then, he comes into contact with the bitter drink of the reproval, when the lips of the chalice have hitherto been smeared with honey []
    • c. 815–840, published in "The Monastery of Tallaght", in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1911-1912, Royal Irish Academy), edited and with translations by Edward J. Gwynn and Walter J. Purton, vol. 29, pp. 115–179, paragraph 6,
      [] céne con·n-oither mo thimnasa insin purt-sa, nícon·ibthar lind dermait dé and.
      [] as long as my rules are upheld in this place, liquor that leads to us forgetting about God are not to be drunk.
    • c. 845, St. Gall Glosses on Priscian, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1975, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. II, pp. 49–224, Sg. 73a8
      lindglosses Latin liquamen (drink)
  2. liquid
    • c. 815–840, published in "The Monastery of Tallaght", in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1911-1912, Royal Irish Academy), edited and with translations by Edward J. Gwynn and Walter J. Purton, vol. 29, pp. 115–179, paragraph 88,
      Acht is mí-chumne spiride fri télach neich din imarcraid lenda bís isind churp.
      But it is an evil recollection of the spirit, accompanying a discharge of some of the excess liquid that is usually in the body.
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 129d13-14
      ibthecha .i. it mathi inna ganema oc oul ind lenda.
      absorbent, i.e. the sands are good at absorbing the liquid.

Inflection[edit]

Neuter u-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative lindN lindL lindL, lenda
Vocative lindN lindL lind
Accusative lindN lindL lind
Genitive lendoH, lendaH lendoN, lendaN lendN
Dative lindL lendaib lendaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
lind
also llind after a proclitic
lind
pronounced with /l(ʲ)-/
unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*lindu-, *lindo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 239-240

Further reading[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Noun[edit]

lind f

  1. lime, linden (tree)
  2. (poetic) linden shield, spear-shaft (weaponry or gear made from lime)

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • lind”, in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Plautdietsch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German lind, probably borrowed from Middle High German lint, from Old High German lind, from Proto-West Germanic *linþ(ī).

Adjective[edit]

lind

  1. mild, soft
  2. lenient

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Swedish lind, from Old Norse lind, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lind c

  1. linden tree

Declension[edit]

Declension of lind 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative lind linden lindar lindarna
Genitive linds lindens lindars lindarnas

Derived terms[edit]


Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *lintu.

Noun[edit]

lind

  1. bird

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of lind (inflection type 1/ilo)
nominative sing. lind
genitive sing. lindun
partitive sing. lindud
partitive plur. linduid
singular plural
nominative lind lindud
accusative lindun lindud
genitive lindun linduiden
partitive lindud linduid
essive-instructive lindun linduin
translative linduks linduikš
inessive lindus linduiš
elative linduspäi linduišpäi
illative lindhu
linduhu
linduihe
adessive lindul linduil
ablative lindulpäi linduilpäi
allative lindule linduile
abessive linduta linduita
comitative lindunke linduidenke
prolative lindudme linduidme
approximative I lindunno linduidenno
approximative II lindunnoks linduidennoks
egressive lindunnopäi linduidennopäi
terminative I lindhusai
linduhusai
linduihesai
terminative II lindulesai linduilesai
terminative III lindussai
additive I lindhupäi
linduhupäi
linduihepäi
additive II lindulepäi linduilepäi

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “птица”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika