lind

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See also: Lind

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English lind, linde, from Old English lind, from Proto-West Germanic *lindu, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Cognate with Dutch linde, German Linde, Swedish lind. Cognate to Albanian lëndë (wood, timber, material).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /lɪnd/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɪnd
  • Homophone: lend (pin-pen merger)

Noun[edit]

lind (plural linds)

  1. (obsolete) the lime tree, or linden tree

Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Whatever the origin, it undisputedly a parallel formation to lej (to give birth; to be born).[1][2][3] Likely from Proto-Indo-European *li-né-d-ti ~ *li-n-d-énti, a nasal-infixed present from the root *leyd- (to release).[1][2] Alternatively from the root *h₂el- (to grow, nourish),[3] though the formal composition is unclear.

Verb[edit]

lind (aorist linda, participle lindur)

  1. (intransitive) to be born
    Synonyms: lej, lindem
  2. (transitive) to give birth, bear (child)
    Synonym: lej

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Orel, Vladimir E. (1998), “lej”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 217
  2. 2.0 2.1 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “lei̯d-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 402–403
  3. 3.0 3.1 Demiraj, B. (1997), “lind”, in Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: []] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7) (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi

Danish[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse lind.

Adjective[edit]

lind

  1. soft
  2. thin
Inflection[edit]
Inflection of lind
Positive Comparative Superlative
Indefinte common singular lind 2
Indefinite neuter singular lindt 2
Plural linde 2
Definite attributive1 linde
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.

Etymology 2[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

From Old Norse lind.

Noun[edit]

lind c (singular definite linden, plural indefinite linde)

  1. linden, lime, basswood (Tilia)
Inflection[edit]

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *lintu, from Proto-Finno-Ugric *lunta or *linta, compare with Finnish lintu, Ter Sami lonnˈt, Mansi лунт (lunt) and Hungarian lúd.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈlind̥/, [ˈlʲind̥]
  • Rhymes: -ind
  • Hyphenation: lind

Noun[edit]

lind (genitive linnu, partitive lindu)

  1. bird

Declension[edit]

Declension of lind (ÕS type 22e/riik, d-n gradation)
singular plural
nominative lind linnud
accusative nom.
gen. linnu
genitive lindude
partitive lindu linde
lindusid
illative lindu
linnusse
lindudesse
linnesse
inessive linnus lindudes
linnes
elative linnust lindudest
linnest
allative linnule lindudele
linnele
adessive linnul lindudel
linnel
ablative linnult lindudelt
linnelt
translative linnuks lindudeks
linneks
terminative linnuni lindudeni
essive linnuna lindudena
abessive linnuta lindudeta
comitative linnuga lindudega

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German linde, from Old High German lind, lindi, from Proto-West Germanic *linþ(ī), from Proto-Germanic *linþaz. Compare English lithe.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

lind (strong nominative masculine singular linder, comparative linder, superlative am lindesten or am lindsten)

  1. (archaic, poetic) mild; gentle

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • lind” in Duden online
  • lind” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Icelandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Probably related to sense 2 (linden tree)

Noun[edit]

lind f (genitive singular lindar, nominative plural lindir)

  1. spring (place where water emerges from the ground)
Declension[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse lind, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Noun[edit]

lind f (genitive singular lindar, nominative plural lindir)

  1. lime, linden (Tilia)
Declension[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • The Journal of English and Germanic Philology. (1934). United States: Journal Publishing Company, p. 93

Livonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *lintu.

Noun[edit]

lind

  1. bird

Etymology 2[edit]

Likely from Proto-Finnic *lentädäk. i may be by analogy to "bird".

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

lind

  1. (Salaca) to fly

Ludian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *lintu.

Noun[edit]

lind

  1. bird

Middle English[edit]

Noun[edit]

lind (plural lyndes)

  1. Alternative form of lynde.

References[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nb

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse lind, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Noun[edit]

lind f or m (definite singular linda or linden, indefinite plural linder, definite plural lindene)

  1. lime, linden (Tilia)

References[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse lind, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Noun[edit]

lind f (definite singular linda, indefinite plural linder, definite plural lindene)

  1. lime, linden (Tilia)

References[edit]

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *lindu, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lind f (nominative plural linde)

  1. lime, linden
  2. (poetic) shield (made from linden wood)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *lindos, possibly from Proto-Indo-European *leyH- (to flow). The two differently-inflecting nouns are closely related, but their morphologies are mysterious.[1]

Noun[edit]

lind f (genitive linde)

  1. a body of water: pool, lake
    • c. 845, St Gall Glosses on Priscian, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1975, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. II, pp. 49–224, Sg. 102a2
      .i. lind te
      i.e. hot pool [The glossator having misunderstood Latin termes (branch) as being related to therma (hot bath)]

Inflection[edit]

Feminine ī-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative lindL lindL lindiH, lindi
Vocative lindL lindL lindiH, lindi
Accusative lindN, lindi lindL lindiH, lindi
Genitive lindeH lindeL lindeN
Dative lindL, lindi lindib lindib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Noun[edit]

lind n (genitive lenda)

  1. drink
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 7d9
      [] hi sunt tra ↄricc frissa lind serb in chúrsactha, lase fo·ruillecta beóil in chalich di mil cosse anall []
      [] Herein, then, he comes into contact with the bitter drink of the reproval, when the lips of the chalice have hitherto been smeared with honey []
    • c. 815-840, “The Monastery of Tallaght”, in Edward J. Gwynn, Walter J. Purton, transl., Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, volume 29, Royal Irish Academy, published 1911-1912, paragraph 6, pages 115-179:
      [] céne con·n-oither mo thimnasa insin purt-sa, nícon·ibthar lind dermait dé and.
      [] as long as my rules are upheld in this place, liquor that leads to us forgetting about God are not to be drunk.
    • c. 845, St Gall Glosses on Priscian, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1975, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. II, pp. 49–224, Sg. 73a8
      lindglosses Latin liquamen (drink)
  2. liquid
    • c. 815-840, “The Monastery of Tallaght”, in Edward J. Gwynn, Walter J. Purton, transl., Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, volume 29, Royal Irish Academy, published 1911-1912, paragraph 88, pages 115-179:
      Acht is mí-chumne spiride fri télach neich din imarcraid lenda bís isind churp.
      But it is an evil recollection of the spirit, accompanying a discharge of some of the excess liquid that is usually in the body.
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 129d13-14
      ibthecha .i. it mathi inna ganema oc oul ind lenda.
      absorbent, i.e. the sands are good at absorbing the liquid.

Inflection[edit]

Neuter u-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative lindN lindL lindL, lenda
Vocative lindN lindL lind
Accusative lindN lindL lind
Genitive lendoH, lendaH lendoN, lendaN lendN
Dative lindL lendaib lendaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
lind
also llind after a proclitic
lind
pronounced with /l(ʲ)-/
unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*lindu-, *lindo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 239-240

Further reading[edit]

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Noun[edit]

lind f

  1. lime, linden (tree)
  2. (poetic) linden shield, spear-shaft (weaponry or gear made from lime)

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • lind”, in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Plautdietsch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German lind, probably borrowed from Middle High German lint, from Old High German lind, from Proto-West Germanic *linþ(ī).

Adjective[edit]

lind

  1. mild, soft
  2. lenient

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Swedish lind, from Old Norse lind, from Proto-Germanic *lindō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lind c

  1. linden tree

Declension[edit]

Declension of lind 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative lind linden lindar lindarna
Genitive linds lindens lindars lindarnas

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *lintu.

Noun[edit]

lind

  1. bird

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of lind (inflection type 1/ilo)
nominative sing. lind
genitive sing. lindun
partitive sing. lindud
partitive plur. linduid
singular plural
nominative lind lindud
accusative lindun lindud
genitive lindun linduiden
partitive lindud linduid
essive-instructive lindun linduin
translative linduks linduikš
inessive lindus linduiš
elative linduspäi linduišpäi
illative linduhu linduihe
adessive lindul linduil
ablative lindulpäi linduilpäi
allative lindule linduile
abessive linduta linduita
comitative lindunke linduidenke
prolative lindudme linduidme
approximative I lindunno linduidenno
approximative II lindunnoks linduidennoks
egressive lindunnopäi linduidennopäi
terminative I linduhusai linduihesai
terminative II lindulesai linduilesai
terminative III lindussai
additive I linduhupäi linduihepäi
additive II lindulepäi linduilepäi

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “птица”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika