pilns

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Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *pilˀnas, from Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₁nós, from *pleh₁-, *pl̥- (to pour, to flow; to heap, to fill) (with an adjectivizing suffix -no-), the same stem as pildīt (to fill) (q.v.). The original meaning was thus “poured,” “flowed,” “heaped,” from which “filled.” Cognates include Lithuanian pìlnas, Old Prussian pilnan (whole) (singular accusative), erpilninaiti (fill it!) (imperative 2nd person plural), Old Church Slavonic пльнъ (plĭnŭ), плънъ (plŭnŭ, full), Russian по́лный (pólnyj), Proto-Germanic *fulla- (< *fulna- < *pulna-; Gothic 𐍆𐌿𐌻𐌻𐍃 (fulls), German voll, English full), Sanskrit पूर्ण (pūrṇá, filled, full) (< *pūlna- < *pl̥-no-), Latin plēnus (full; strong, satiated).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

pilns (definite pilnais, comparative pilnāks, superlative vispilnākais, adverb pilnam, pilnām)

  1. (of containers) full (without any space left)
    pilna bļodafull bowl
    pilna kanna ar pienupot full of milk
    piebērt pilnus grozus ar kartupeļiemto load baskets full of potatoes
    piesmelt pilnu spaini ar ūdeni — to draw a full bucket of water
  2. (of spaces, rooms) full (completely occupied)
    pilns skapis ar drēbēma wardrobe full of clothes
    pilns penālis ar zīmuļiema pencil case full of pencils
    piekraut pilnu šķūni ar sienuto load a barn full of hay
  3. (of flat objects) full (with completely occupied surface; with many thing on its surface)
    pilns galdsfull table (with food, drinks, etc.)
    zeme piebirusi pilna ar āboliemthe earth was covered full of apples
    piebārstīt pilnu grīdu ar skaidāmto scatter sawdust all over the floor
  4. (of paper, books, etc.) full (completely written, drawn over; with many writings, drawings)
    pierakstīt pilnu kladi ar lekcijāmto fill a notebook (= to write it full) with lectures
    burtnīca pilna ar stundu plāniema notebook full of lesson plans
    grāmata pilna ar krāsainiem zīmējumiema book full of colorful illustrations
  5. (of places, objects) full (with many people, animals, plants, objects; with all available places occupied; where some substance has spread)
    pilns veikals ar pircējiema shop full of customers
    ielas pilnas turistustreets full of tourists
    ļaužu pilnas ielasstreets full of people
    autobuss pilns ar pasažieriema bus full of passengers
    strops pilns ar bitēma hive full of bees
    pilns parks ar vāverema park full of squirrels
    purvs pilns odua swamp full of mosquitoes
    pilns dārzs ar ābelēma garden full of apple trees
    šogad meži pilni sēņuthis year the forests (are) full of mushrooms
    noliekt riekstu pilnu lazdas zaruto tilt, to bend a hazel branch full of nuts
    virtuve pilna ar dūmiema kitchen full of smoke
    pagalms pilns ar bērnu čalāma yard full of children's chatter
  6. (of substances) full (with considerable admixture of something else)
    graudi pilni pelavāmgrains full of chaff
    kaļķi pilni ar smiltīmlime filled with sand
    duļķu pilns ūdenswater full of mud
  7. (of natural phenomena) full (where something occurs or is formed in large quantites)
    ieleja pilna ar biezu miglua valley full of thick mist
    zeme pilna valgmesland full of moisture, humidity
    ceļi pilni ar dubļiemroads full of mud
  8. (of processes, activities) full (where some intense activity occurs, characterized by some intense activity)
    istaba ir rosības pilnathe room is full of activity, of hustle and bustle
    grūtību pilns ceļojumsa trip full of difficulties, hardships
    gaidu pilnas stundashours full of waiting
    pārdzīvot laimes pilnus mirkļusto live, experience moments full of happiness, bliss
    optimisma pilns romānsa novel full of optimism
  9. (of people or their actions) full (feeling, possessing some mental feature very intensely)
    prieka pilns bērnsa child full of joy
    pārliecības pilns cilvēksa person full of confidence
    spēka pilns jauneklisa young man full of strength
    pārliecības pilna rīcībaan action full of confidence
    neizpratnes pilna sejaa face full of incomprehension
    naida pilns skatiensa look full of hate
    prieka pilns sauciensa cry full of joy
  10. (of qualities, means; usually in locative) full (at the highest intensity, at the highest level of development)
    braukt pilnā ātrumāto drive at full speed
    pilna slodzefull-time
    pilnā jaudā, ar pilnu jauduat full capacity, with all strength
    runāt, dziedāt, kliegt pilnā balsīto speak, sing, shout at full voice
    pilnā kaujas gatavībāin full combat readiness
    rudzi ir pilnā briedumāthe rye is in full maturity
  11. (of plans, books, courses, teams) full, complete, whole, entire (covering the whole set, extension; having all parts;)
    pilns apmācību kurssfull training course
    noklausīties pilnu lekciju cikluto listen to the full lecture series
    pilna biogrāfijafull biography
    pilns komplektsa full, complete set
    pilns lidmašīnas personālsastāvsfull flight personnel
    hokeja komanda spēlē pilnā sastavāthe hockey team plays in its full composition (= the full team, the whole team)
  12. (of amounts, measurements) full, whole, complete (corresponding exactly to the given value)
    nostrādāt pilnu darba nedēļuto work two full work weeks
    sasniegt pilnus astoņpadsmit gadusto reach, to achieve full eighteen years (of age)
  13. (of circles, lines, time periods) full, continuous, uninterrupted
    pilns apgrieziensfull, complete rotation
    darba tika pabeigti tikai pilnā naktīthe work was finished only in (= after) a full night
  14. (of body, body parts) full (relatively large, stout)
    miesās pilns cilvēksa full-bodied (= large, stout) person
    sieviete ar pilnām lūpāma woman with full lips
  15. (colloquial, of people) full, very drunk
    daži tik pilni, ka streipuļojasome (of the people) so full (= drunk) that they staggered

Declension[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “pilns”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7