bark

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English[edit]

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 Bark on Wikipedia

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Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English barken, berken, borken, from Old English beorcan (to bark, bark at), from the Proto-Germanic *berkaną (to bark, rumble), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰereg- (to make a noise, growl, bark), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰer- (to drone, hum, buzz). Cognate with Icelandic berkja (to bark, bluster), Icelandic barki (throat, windpipe), dialectal Lithuanian burgė́ti, Serbo-Croatian brgljati (to murmur). For the noun, compare Old English beorc, bearce (barking).

Verb[edit]

bark (third-person singular simple present barks, present participle barking, simple past and past participle barked)

  1. (intransitive) To make a short, loud, explosive noise with the vocal organs (said of animals, especially dogs).
    The neighbour's dog is always barking.
    The seal barked as the zookeeper threw fish into its enclosure.
  2. (intransitive) To make a clamor; to make importunate outcries.
    • (Can we date this quote?), Tyndale.
      They bark, and say the Scripture maketh heretics.
    • (Can we date this quote?), Fuller
      Where there is the barking of the belly, there no other commands will be heard, much less obeyed. .
  3. (transitive) To speak sharply.
    The sergeant barked an order.
    • 2011 January 5, Mark Ashenden, “Wolverhampton 1 - 0 Chelsea”, BBC:
      While McCarthy prowled the touchline barking orders, his opposite number watched on motionless and expressionless and, with 25 minutes to go, decided to throw on Nicolas Anelka for Kalou.
Usage notes[edit]

Historically, bork existed as a past tense form and borken as a past participle, but both forms are now obsolete.

Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Noun[edit]

bark (plural barks)

  1. The short, loud, explosive sound uttered by a dog.
  2. A similar sound made by some other animals.
  3. (figuratively) An abrupt loud vocal utterance.
    • circa 1921, The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, vol 11:
      Fox’s clumsy figure, negligently dressed in blue and buff, seemed unprepossessing; only his shaggy eyebrows added to the expression of his face; his voice would rise to a bark in excitement.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English bark, from Old English barc (bark), from Old Norse bǫrkr (tree bark), from Proto-Germanic *barkuz, probably related to *birkijǭ (birch), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰergo- (compare Latin frāxinus (ash), Lithuanian béržas (birch)), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰereg- (to gleam; white) (compare English bright); akin to Danish bark, Icelandic börkr, Low German borke and Albanian berk (bast).

Noun[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

bark (countable and uncountable, plural barks)

  1. (countable, uncountable) The exterior covering of the trunk and branches of a tree.
    • 2012 September 21, John Branch, “Snow Fall : The Avalanche at Tunnel Creek”, New York Time:
      Moving about 70 miles per hour, it crashed through the sturdy old-growth trees, snapping their limbs and shredding bark from their trunks.
  2. (medicine) Peruvian bark or Jesuit's bark, the bark of the cinchona from which quinine is produced.
  3. The crust formed on barbecued meat that has had a rub applied to it.
    • 2009, Julie Reinhardt, She-Smoke: A Backyard Barbecue Book, page 151:
      This softens the meat further, but at some loss of crunch to the bark.
Usage notes[edit]

Usually uncountable; bark may be countable when referring to the barks of different types of tree.

Synonyms[edit]
  • (exterior covering of a tree): rind
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

bark (third-person singular simple present barks, present participle barking, simple past and past participle barked)

  1. To strip the bark from; to peel.
  2. To abrade or rub off any outer covering from.
    to bark one’s heel
  3. To girdle.
  4. To cover or inclose with bark, or as with bark.
    bark the roof of a hut
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English barke (boat), from Middle French barque, from Late Latin barca, from Vulgar Latin barica, from Ancient Greek βάρις (báris, Egyptian boat), from Coptic bari (small boat), from Egyptian bēre.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bark (plural barks)

  1. (obsolete) A small sailing vessel, e.g. a pinnace or a fishing smack; a rowing boat or barge.
  2. (poetic) a sailing vessel or boat of any kind.
    • circa 1609, William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116:
      It is the star to every wandering bark
    • circa 1880, among the Poems of Emily Dickinson:
      Whether my bark went down at sea, Whether she met with gales, []
  3. (nautical) A three-masted vessel, having her foremast and mainmast square-rigged, and her mizzenmast schooner-rigged.
Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Albanian *báruka, from *bʰor-ukos, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰer- ‘to carry’. Compare Old Irish bru (belly), bruach (big-bellied), Russian брюхо (brjúcho, lower abdomen, belly, paunch). More at bie and barrë.

Noun[edit]

bark m (indefinite plural barqe, definite singular barku, definite plural barqet)

  1. (anatomy) belly

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse bǫrkr.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bark/, [b̥ɑːɡ̊]

Noun[edit]

bark c (singular definite barken, not used in plural form)

  1. bark (covering of the trunk of a tree)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse barki

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bark/, [b̥ɑːɡ̊]

Noun[edit]

bark c (singular definite barken, plural indefinite barker)

  1. bark (large sailing boat)
Inflection[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bark m (plural barken, diminutive barkje n)

  1. the bark of certain trees, used for its tannin

Noun[edit]

bark f (plural barken, diminutive barkje n)

  1. barge, a large type of rowing or sailing boat

Anagrams[edit]


Faroese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Danish bark, from Middle French barque, from Late Latin barca, from Vulgar Latin barica, from Ancient Greek βάρις (báris, Egyptian boat), from Coptic ⲃⲁⲣⲓ (bari, small boat), from Egyptian bēre.

Noun[edit]

bark f (genitive singular barkar, plural barkir)

  1. (nautical) bark: A three-masted vessel, having her foremast and mainmast square-rigged, and her mizzenmast schooner-rigged.

Declension[edit]

f2 Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative bark barkin barkir barkirnar
Accusative bark barkina barkir barkirnar
Dative bark barkini barkum barkunum
Genitive barkar barkarinnar barka barkanna

Synonyms[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia no

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse bǫrkr

Noun[edit]

bark m (definite singular barken, uncountable)

  1. bark (outer layer of trunks and branches of trees and bushes)

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia no

bark m (definite singular barken, indefinite plural barker, definite plural barkene)

  1. a barque or bark (type of sailing ship)

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia nn

Noun[edit]

bark m (definite singular barken, indefinite plural barkar, definite plural barkane)

  1. a barque or bark (type of sailing ship)

Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia pl

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bark m (genitive barku, plural barki)

  1. shoulder
  2. barque
  3. unit in the Bark scale

External links[edit]

  • bark” in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Swedish[edit]

Noun[edit]

bark c (uncountable)

  1. bark (covering of the trunk of a tree)