lean

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English lenen (to lean), from Old English hleonian, hlinian (to lean, recline, lie down, rest), from Proto-Germanic *hlinōną (to lean, incline), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱley-. Cognate via Proto-Germanic with Middle Dutch lenen (to lean), German lehnen (to lean); via Proto-Indo-European with climate, cline.

Verb[edit]

lean (third-person singular simple present leans, present participle leaning, simple past and past participle leaned or leant (especially British))

  1. To incline, deviate, or bend, from a vertical position; to be in a position thus inclining or deviating.
    a leaning column
    She leaned out of the window.
  2. To incline in opinion or desire; to conform in conduct; with to, toward, etc.
    I'm leaning towards voting Conservative in the next election.
    • Edmund Spenser (c.1552–1599)
      They delight rather to lean to their old customs.
  3. To rest or rely, for support, comfort, etc.; with on, upon, or against.
    • Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892)
      He leaned not on his fathers but himself.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 23, The Mirror and the Lamp:
      The slightest effort made the patient cough. He would stand leaning on a stick and holding a hand to his side, and when the paroxysm had passed it left him shaking.
  4. To hang outwards.
  5. To press against.
    • John Dryden (1631-1700)
      His fainting limbs against an oak he leant.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English lene (lean), from Old English hlǣne (lean), perhaps from Old English hlǣnan (to cause to lean", in the sense of "to cause to bend or lean due to hunger or lack of food), from Proto-Germanic *hlainijaną (to cause to lean). If so, then related to Old English hlinian, hleonian (to lean).

Adjective[edit]

lean (comparative leaner, superlative leanest)

  1. (of a person or animal) slim; not fleshy.
  2. (of meat) having little fat.
  3. Having little extra or little to spare; scanty; meagre.
    a lean budget; a lean harvest
  4. Of a fuel-air mixture, having more air than is necessary to burn all of the fuel; more air- or oxygen- rich than necessary for a stoichiometric reaction.
  5. (printing, archaic) Of a character which prevents the compositor from earning the usual wages; opposed to fat.
    lean copy, matter, or type
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

lean (third-person singular simple present leans, present participle leaning, simple past and past participle leaned)

  1. To thin out (a fuel-air mixture): to reduce the fuel flow into the mixture so that there is more air or oxygen.
    • 1938 July, Blaine and Dupont Miller, “Weather Hop”, Boy's Life, Boy Scouts of America, ISSN 0006-8608, page 25: 
      He leaned the mixture in an effort to cause a backfire through the carburetor, the generally accepted method of breaking the ice loose.
    • 2002 July, Tom Benenson, “Can Your Engine Run Too Lean?”, Flying, volume 129, number 7, ISSN 0015-4806, page 73: 
      Even the Pilot's Operating Handbooks (POH) for our training airplanes add to our paranoia with their insistence that we not lean the mixture until we're above 5000 feet density altitude.

Etymology 3[edit]

Icelandic leyna?; akin to German word for "deny". Compare lie (speak falsely).

Verb[edit]

lean (third-person singular simple present leans, present participle leaning, simple past and past participle leaned)

  1. To conceal.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Ray to this entry?)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Galician[edit]

Verb[edit]

lean

  1. third-person plural present subjunctive of ler

Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish lenaid (stays, sticks (to), follows), from Proto-Celtic *linā- (stick), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ley- (slimy); compare Latin linō (anoint), Latin līmus (mud, slime), Sanskrit लिनाति (lināti, sticks, stays).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

lean (present analytic leanann, future analytic leanfaidh, verbal noun leanúint, past participle leanta)

  1. to follow

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Old English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *launą, from a suffixed form of Proto-Indo-European *leh₂u- (catch, plunder, profit). Cognate with Old Frisian lān, Old Saxon lōn, Dutch loon, Old High German lōn (German Lohn), Old Norse laun (Swedish lön), Gothic 𐌻𐌰𐌿𐌽 (láun). The Indo-European root is also the source of Ancient Greek λεία (leia) (from *λαϝία), Latin lucrum, Old Church Slavonic ловъ (lovŭ) (Russian лов (lov)), Old Irish lóg, Lithuanian lãvinti.

Noun[edit]

lēan n

  1. reward
Declension[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *lahaną. Cognate with Old Saxon lahan, Old High German lahan, Old Norse , Gothic 𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌰𐌽 (laian).

Verb[edit]

lēan

  1. (transitive) to blame, find fault with, reproach
Conjugation[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

(third-person singular preterite lōg, third-person plural preterite lōgon)


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish lenaid (stays, sticks (to), follows), from Proto-Celtic *linā- (stick), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)lei- (slimy); compare Latin linō (anoint), Sanskrit लिनाति (lināti, sticks, stays).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

lean (verbal noun leantainn or leanmhainn)

  1. to follow
  2. to continue, proceed
    An lean an droch aimsir? - Will the bad weather continue?

Derived terms[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

lean

  1. Second-person plural (ustedes) imperative form of leer.
  2. Second-person plural (ustedes) present subjunctive form of leer.
  3. Third-person plural (ellos, ellas, also used with ustedes?) present subjunctive form of leer.

West Frisian[edit]

Noun[edit]

lean n

  1. wage, wages, salary
  2. reward

Example

  • "Frank Lloyd Wright hat de baan krigen en syn earste lean wie 25 dollar yn 'e wike." (For his first salary, Frank Lloyd Wright received 25 dollars per week.)