器械

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Chinese

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device; tool; utensil tools
trad. (器械)
simp. #(器械)

Pronunciation

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Noun

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器械

  1. apparatus; equipment
  2. weapon; arm
  3. (literary, archaic) various kinds of ritual objects and armor

Synonyms

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  • (apparatus):
  • (weapon):

Derived terms

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Japanese

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
かい
Grade: 4
kan'on
Alternative spellings
器械 (kyūjitai)
機械
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Etymology

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From Old Japanese, in turn from Middle Chinese 器械 (MC khijH heajH, “apparatus; weapon”, literally “utensil; tool + weapon; implement”).

First appears in Japanese in a text from 718 CE with the 器械 spelling and a sense of weapon.[1]

Later appears in a text from 1520 as 機械 (kikai) with a sense of apparatus, device, machine, mechanism,[1] replacing (ki, utensil; tool) with (ki, weaving loom; apparatus) and reflecting changes in usage and meaning. This spelling may be a Japanese innovation, and it only becomes prominent from around 1874.[2] Prior to that, this term was more commonly written with the original 器械 spelling.[2]

In modern Japanese, some definitions distinguish the 機械 and 器械 spellings with 機械 used for those machines that include their own motive power, and 器械 for those that have no power of their own.[1][3] General usage appears to be broader, differentiating the two spellings by the size of the item, with 器械 used for a smaller apparatus or device, and 機械 used for a larger apparatus or equipment.[1][4] These broad distinctions generally also hold true for the suffixes (-ki) and (-ki).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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()(かい) (kikai

  1. 機械, 器械: [from 1850s] any powered mechanical device for performing work
    Sometimes more specifically distinguished such that a 機械 (kikai) comprises a motive power source, a means of transmitting that force, and a component that performs the work, whereas any mechanism that does not have all three would be a 器械 (kikai).[1][3]
    1. 器械: a device, an appliance, a mechanism
      Synonym: (device, equipment, apparatus”; general term) 装置 (sōchi)
    2. 機械: a machine, equipment, an apparatus
      Synonyms: (device, equipment, apparatus”; general term) 装置 (sōchi), (equipment, machine, facilities”; something bigger that must often be installed) 設備 (setsubi)
      • 1999 March 27, “ホログラー [Holograr]”, in Vol.2, Konami:
        (さま)(ざま)(げん)(そう)()せ、そのスキをついて(こう)(げき)してくる()(かい)
        Samazama na gensō o mise, sono suki o tsuite kōgeki shite kuru kikai.
        This machine generates illusions that open a window for its attacks.
  2. 器械: [from 1868] a utensil, a tool, an instrument
    Synonyms: (utensil) 器具 (kigu), (tool) 道具 (dōgu)
  3. 器械: [from 1872] a tool for conducting a test or experiment or for measurement
    Synonym: (gauge, measurement device) 測定器 (sokuteiki)
  4. 機械, 器械: [from 1520] (archaic) a clockwork, a mechanism, especially one using strings and pulleys
    Synonym: からくり (karakuri)
  5. 機械: [from 1862] (uncommon, biology) an internal organ, biological machinery
    Synonyms: (“an organ” in general) 器官 (kikan), (“an internal organ” more specifically) 臓器 (sōki), (internal organ”, often in the aggregate) 内臓 (naizō)
  6. 機械: [from 1899] (uncommon) a means for accomplishing a goal
    Synonym: (a means in general) 手段 (shudan)
  7. 器械: [from 1886] (rare) manipulation or control of another person's behavior to act according to one's own will; a person so controlled
    Synonym: (marionette, puppet) 操り人形 (ayatsuri ningyō)
  8. 器械: [718–???] (obsolete) a weapon
    Synonym: (modern term) 武器 (buki)

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 器械”, in 世界大百科事典 第2版 (Sekai Dai-hyakka Jiten Dainihan, Heibonsha World Encyclopedia Second Edition)[1] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Heibonsha, 1998
  3. 3.0 3.1 Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  6. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja in this term

Noun

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器械 (gigye) (hangeul 기계)

  1. hanja form? of 기계 (instrument)

Vietnamese

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chữ Hán Nôm in this term

Noun

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器械

  1. chữ Hán form of khí giới (weapon; arm).