User:Marcas.oduinn/Published/IrregularVerbs/WiP

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There are only eleven[1] irregular verbs in Modern Irish: abair, beir, bí, clois, déan, ith, faigh, feic, tabhair, tar, téigh.

Summary of irregular stems[edit]

  1. abair: deir, dúr, déar; rá
  2. beir: rug, béar; breith
  3. : tá, fuil, rabh, bei; bheith
  4. clois: chuala
  5. déan: rinne, dearna
  6. faigh: fuair, gheobh
  7. feic: chonaic, fac
  8. ith: íos
  9. tabhair: tug, tabhar
  10. tar: tag, tháng, tioc; teacht
  11. téigh: té, chua, deach, rach; dul

Moods and tenses of irregular stems[edit]

  • One verb () has a distinct indicative present independent stem ().[2]
  • One verb () has a distinct indicative present dependent stem (fuil).
  • Four verbs (bí, déan, feic, téigh) have distinct indicative past dependent stems
  • Six verbs (abair, bí, déan, faigh, feic, téigh) take non-preterite preverbal particles ( instead of níor etc.) in the indicative past.
  • Three verbs (abair, deir, tabhair) are broadened in the indicative future and conditional.
  • One verb (faigh) has a distinct independent form in the indicative future and conditional (gheobh‑).
  • Six verbs (bí, clois, faigh, feic, tar, téigh) have past autonomous -thas. The stem is broadened where necessary. All except faigh are lenitied (e.g., bhíothas, but fuarthas).
  • Three verbs (abair, tar, téigh) have distinct verbal noun stems (rá, teacht, dul).

Table of irregular stems[edit]

This table highlights all the irregular stems of the eleven irregular Irish verbs.

Moods and tenses [s 1] abair [s 2] beir clois déan faigh feic ith tabhair tar téigh
Indicative present indep deir [s 3] [s 4] tug tag [s 5]
dep fuil [s 6][s 7][s 8]
pres habitual deir tug tag
past indep dúr [s 9] rug chuala rinne fuair [s 10] chonaic [s 10] thug tháng [s 11] chua [s 12]
dep [s 13] ní dúr ní rabh [s 14] ní dhearna ní bhfuair [s 15] ní fhaca ní dheach
past habitual
future indep déar béar bei gheobh [s 16][s 17] íos tabhar tioc rach [s 17]
dep faigh [s 17][s 18]
Conditional indep déar béar bei [s 19] gheobh [s 17] íos tabhar tioc rach [s 17]
dep faigh [s 17][s 18]
Subjunctive present deir rabh tug tag [s 20]
past deir bei [s 21] tug tag
Imperative [s 22]
Verbal noun [s 23] breith bheith cloisteáil déanamh fáil [s 24] feiceáil ithe tabhairt teacht dul
Past participle ráite breithe cloiste déanta fáilte feicthe ite tugtha tagtha dulta

Notes

  1. ^ Tenses are named and listed as per Wiktionary conjugation templates
  2. ^ The d- forms are immune to lenition, they were previously adeir, adúirt
  3. ^ The analytic form is deir, that is, deir does not take an -eann suffix
  4. ^ The analytic form is , that is, does not take an -(a)nn suffix
  5. ^ Téann is a contraction of téigh + eann > téann
  6. ^ The analytic form is fuil, that is, fuil does not take an -eann suffix
  7. ^ Negative níl is a contraction of ní fhuil
  8. ^ Interrogative an bhfuil tends to be pronounced an fhuil
  9. ^ The analytic form is dúirt
  10. 10.0 10.1 Only in the autonomous is the stem broadened with -thas
  11. ^ The analytic form is tháinig (slender, unlenited g)
  12. ^ The analytic form is chuaigh (slender)
  13. ^ Quoted with the negative particle to highlight initial mutations
  14. ^ For compound forms, the stem is broadened to rabh-, e.g., rabhthas
  15. ^ Eclipsis rather than lenition
  16. ^ The stem is inherently lenited
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 No f in declension suffix, e.g., gheobhaidh
  18. 18.0 18.1 Eclipsis with ní
  19. ^ The analytic form is bheadh
  20. ^ Contraction of téigh + e > té
  21. ^ Declension follows the conditional, rather than the usual past habitual
  22. ^ All imperatives are identical to the radical
  23. ^ The verbal nouns and adjectives (past participles) are given for all verbs
  24. ^ faigh + áil > fáil

Etymology of irregular verbs[edit]

  • Independent stems tend to be derived from Old Irish (SGa) deuteronic forms, and dependent stems from SGa prototonic forms.
  • Eight verbs (abair, beir, bí, clois, feic, tabhair, tar, téigh) have forms derived ultimately from two or more source verbs.[e 1] Only three (déan, faigh, ith) derive from a single source.
  • Three verbs (abair, beir, tabhair) are derived (fully or paritially) from SGa beirid.
  • The verbal noun of tar (to come) (teacht) leaked across from the verbal noun of téigh (to go) (whose verbal noun is now dul).
Verb form Obsolete Middle Irish Old Irish Proto-Celtic PIE
form roots root translation
abair at·beir as·beir ess- +‎ beirid *bereti *bʰer- carry
deir adeir at·beir as·beir
dúirt adubhairt dubart as·rubart [e 2]
rádh rád ráidid *rādī- *reh₂dʰ- arrange
beir ·beir beirid *bereti *bʰer- carry
rug ·ruc [e 3] ro- +‎ ·uic *ōnkeyo- *h₂neḱ- reach
ad- +‎ ·tá *buyo- *bʰuH- become
at·tá *tāti *steh₂- stand
[e 4] [e 5] fuil fil *wel- *wel- see!
raibh ·roib [e 6] cf *buyo-
bheadh ·biad
clois cloisid This is a conflation of the following two.
coistid con·túaisi *tawsos *teh₂ws- listen
clos clúas *kloustā *ḱlewst- hear
chuala rochúala [e 7]
déan ·dénai [e 8] do·gní < dí- +‎ gníid *gniyeti *ǵenh₁- produce, beget
rinne do-rinne do·rigni [e 9]
dearna *·dernai [e 10]
faigh fogbai fo·gaib [e 11] fo- +‎ gaibid *gabyeti *gʰh₁bʰ- take, hold
fuair fuar
gheobhaidh gaibid
feic [e 12] ·aicci ad·cí *ad‑kʷis‑o- *kʷey- observe
chonaic ad·condairc[e 13] *derk- *derḱ- see
faca ·acca [e 14] cf *ad-kʷis-o-
ith ithid ithid *ɸiteti *peyt- eat
íosfaidh ·íss [e 15] *ɸiɸitsāti
tabhair ·tabair do·beir < to- +‎ beirid *bereti *bʰer- carry
tug tuicc [e 16] do·uic *ōnkeyo- *h₂neḱ- reach
tar do·icc do·icc < to- +‎ ·icc *īnketi- *h₂neḱ- reach, attain
tig ·ticc
tháinig ·tánaic
tiocfaidh ·ticfea
teacht techt [e 17] téit *tēgeti *steygʰ- go, climb
téigh téit téit *tēgeti *steygʰ- go, climb
chuaigh chuaidh do‑chuaidh do·choïd dí- +‎ com- +‎ feidid *wedeti *wedʰ- lead
deachaigh deachaidh ·dechuid [e 18]
rachaidh regaid [e 19] regaid *rigāti *h₁ergʰ- go, move
dul dul [e 20] ? *ludet *h₁ludʰét arrive

Notes

  1. ^ There are two examples in English, be and go.
  2. ^ perfect of as·beir (ro-form?).
  3. ^ perfect, ro-form, prototonic of beirid.
  4. ^ See also voici.
  5. ^ etymology 2 in this entry.
  6. ^ 3rd sg, present subjunctive, ro-form, prototonic of at·tá.
  7. ^ cf. chuala on MacBain.
  8. ^ present deuteronic of do·gní.
  9. ^ perfect deuteronic of do·gní.
  10. ^ perfect prototonic of do·gní.
  11. ^ fo-gaib on eDIL.
  12. ^ The f is prothetic, a misinterpretation of aic- as lenited *faic.
  13. ^ perfect of ad·cí.
  14. ^ perfect protonic of ad·ci.
  15. ^ 1st sg future conjunct of ithid.
  16. ^ prototonic do·uic, 3rd sg perfect deuteronic of do·beir.
  17. ^ vn. of téit, later of do·icc.
  18. ^ perfect prototonic téit.
  19. ^ 3rd sg future absolute of téit.
  20. ^ no SGa etymology in this entry; MacBain has doluid, with PIE etymology *leudho ("go"), at entry dol; cf Pret. 3 s. of do·tét on eDIL; dul on eDIL; also, luid, téit, do·tét here on Wiktionary.

Irregulars, in order of irregularity[edit]

  • clois, ith
    • one irregular stem only
  • feic, déan
    • distinct independent and dependent forms in past tense only
  • abair, beir, tabhair
    • all derived from Old Irish beirid
    • broadened in indicative future and conditional
    • verbal noun of abair is from a different verb root
  • faigh, tar, téigh
    • independent and dependent forms in various moods and tenses
    • in common with most other languages, the verb to be is the most irregular

Wiktionary templates[edit]

General:

Specific:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There are 22 entries in Category:Irish irregular verbs as at 20-Mar-2018, including alternative forms and compounds
  2. ^ For this reason, the regular present habitual of is distinctive

External links[edit]

  • Irregular Verbs on Nualeargais
  • Tense and Features in Irish Verbal Morphology, Paolo Acquaviva, Minority Languages, Proceedings of the Irish Network in Formal Linguistics, Oct 2013, Part II, Chapter 5, pp. 70-90.
  • MacBain's Dictionary, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language.

See also[edit]

Category:Irish appendices - Verbs irregular