vuna

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Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *vьlna, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wĺ̥h₁neh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʋûna/
  • Hyphenation: vu‧na

Noun[edit]

vȕna f (Cyrillic spelling ву̏на)

  1. wool

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • vuna” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Swahili[edit]

Verb[edit]

-vuna (infinitive kuvuna)

  1. to harvest, reap
  2. to profit

Usage notes[edit]

The reflexive with -ji- is not used, as it is identical in form with the unrelated verb -jivuna.

Conjugation[edit]

Conjugation of -vuna
Non-finite forms
Form Positive Negative
Infinitive kuvuna kutovuna
Simple finite forms
Positive form Singular Plural
Imperative vuna vuneni
Habitual huvuna
Complex finite forms
Polarity Persons Persons / Classes Classes
1st 2nd 3rd / M-wa M-mi Ma Ki-vi N U Ku Pa Mu
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. / 1 Pl. / 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 / 14 15 / 17 16 18
Past
Positive nilivuna
nalivuna
tulivuna
twalivuna
ulivuna
walivuna
mlivuna
mwalivuna
alivuna walivuna ulivuna ilivuna lilivuna yalivuna kilivuna vilivuna ilivuna zilivuna ulivuna kulivuna palivuna mulivuna
Relative niliovuna
naliovuna
tuliovuna
twaliovuna
uliovuna
waliovuna
mliovuna
mwaliovuna
aliovuna waliovuna uliovuna iliovuna liliovuna yaliovuna kiliovuna viliovuna iliovuna ziliovuna uliovuna kuliovuna paliovuna muliovuna
Negative sikuvuna hatukuvuna hukuvuna hamkuvuna hakuvuna hawakuvuna haukuvuna haikuvuna halikuvuna hayakuvuna hakikuvuna havikuvuna haikuvuna hazikuvuna haukuvuna hakukuvuna hapakuvuna hamukuvuna
Present
Positive ninavuna
navuna
tunavuna unavuna mnavuna anavuna wanavuna unavuna inavuna linavuna yanavuna kinavuna vinavuna inavuna zinavuna unavuna kunavuna panavuna munavuna
Relative ninaovuna
naovuna
tunaovuna unaovuna mnaovuna anaovuna wanaovuna unaovuna inaovuna linaovuna yanaovuna kinaovuna vinaovuna inaovuna zinaovuna unaovuna kunaovuna panaovuna munaovuna
Negative sivuni hatuvuni huvuni hamvuni havuni hawavuni hauvuni haivuni halivuni hayavuni hakivuni havivuni haivuni hazivuni hauvuni hakuvuni hapavuni hamuvuni
Future
Positive nitavuna tutavuna utavuna mtavuna atavuna watavuna utavuna itavuna litavuna yatavuna kitavuna vitavuna itavuna zitavuna utavuna kutavuna patavuna mutavuna
Relative nitakaovuna tutakaovuna utakaovuna mtakaovuna atakaovuna watakaovuna utakaovuna itakaovuna litakaovuna yatakaovuna kitakaovuna vitakaovuna itakaovuna zitakaovuna utakaovuna kutakaovuna patakaovuna mutakaovuna
Negative sitavuna hatutavuna hutavuna hamtavuna hatavuna hawatavuna hautavuna haitavuna halitavuna hayatavuna hakitavuna havitavuna haitavuna hazitavuna hautavuna hakutavuna hapatavuna hamutavuna
Subjunctive
Positive nivune tuvune uvune mvune avune wavune uvune ivune livune yavune kivune vivune ivune zivune uvune kuvune pavune muvune
Negative nisivune tusivune usivune msivune asivune wasivune usivune isivune lisivune yasivune kisivune visivune isivune zisivune usivune kusivune pasivune musivune
Present Conditional
Positive ningevuna tungevuna ungevuna mngevuna angevuna wangevuna ungevuna ingevuna lingevuna yangevuna kingevuna vingevuna ingevuna zingevuna ungevuna kungevuna pangevuna mungevuna
Negative nisingevuna
singevuna
tusingevuna
hatungevuna
usingevuna
hungevuna
msingevuna
hamngevuna
asingevuna
hangevuna
wasingevuna
hawangevuna
usingevuna
haungevuna
isingevuna
haingevuna
lisingevuna
halingevuna
yasingevuna
hayangevuna
kisingevuna
hakingevuna
visingevuna
havingevuna
isingevuna
haingevuna
zisingevuna
hazingevuna
usingevuna
haungevuna
kusingevuna
hakungevuna
pasingevuna
hapangevuna
musingevuna
hamungevuna
Past Conditional
Positive ningalivuna tungalivuna ungalivuna mngalivuna angalivuna wangalivuna ungalivuna ingalivuna lingalivuna yangalivuna kingalivuna vingalivuna ingalivuna zingalivuna ungalivuna kungalivuna pangalivuna mungalivuna
Negative nisingalivuna
singalivuna
tusingalivuna
hatungalivuna
usingalivuna
hungalivuna
msingalivuna
hamngalivuna
asingalivuna
hangalivuna
wasingalivuna
hawangalivuna
usingalivuna
haungalivuna
isingalivuna
haingalivuna
lisingalivuna
halingalivuna
yasingalivuna
hayangalivuna
kisingalivuna
hakingalivuna
visingalivuna
havingalivuna
isingalivuna
haingalivuna
zisingalivuna
hazingalivuna
usingalivuna
haungalivuna
kusingalivuna
hakungalivuna
pasingalivuna
hapangalivuna
musingalivuna
hamungalivuna
Conditional Contrary to Fact
Positive ningelivuna tungelivuna ungelivuna mngelivuna angelivuna wangelivuna ungelivuna ingelivuna lingelivuna yangelivuna kingelivuna vingelivuna ingelivuna zingelivuna ungelivuna kungelivuna pangelivuna mungelivuna
General Relative
Positive nivunao tuvunao uvunao mvunao avunao wavunao uvunao ivunao livunao yavunao kivunao vivunao ivunao zivunao uvunao kuvunao pavunao muvunao
Negative nisiovuna tusiovuna usiovuna msiovuna asiovuna wasiovuna usiovuna isiovuna lisiovuna yasiovuna kisiovuna visiovuna isiovuna zisiovuna usiovuna kusiovuna pasiovuna musiovuna
Gnomic
Positive navuna twavuna wavuna mwavuna avuna wavuna wavuna yavuna lavuna yavuna chavuna vyavuna yavuna zavuna wavuna kwavuna pavuna mwavuna
Perfect
Positive nimevuna tumevuna umevuna mmevuna amevuna wamevuna umevuna imevuna limevuna yamevuna kimevuna vimevuna imevuna zimevuna umevuna kumevuna pamevuna mumevuna
"Already"
Positive nimeshavuna tumeshavuna umeshavuna mmeshavuna ameshavuna wameshavuna umeshavuna imeshavuna limeshavuna yameshavuna kimeshavuna vimeshavuna imeshavuna zimeshavuna umeshavuna kumeshavuna pameshavuna mumeshavuna
"Not yet"
Negative sijavuna hatujavuna hujavuna hamjavuna hajavuna hawajavuna haujavuna haijavuna halijavuna hayajavuna hakijavuna havijavuna haijavuna hazijavuna haujavuna hakujavuna hapajavuna hamujavuna
"If/When"
Positive nikivuna tukivuna ukivuna mkivuna akivuna wakivuna ukivuna ikivuna likivuna yakivuna kikivuna vikivuna ikivuna zikivuna ukivuna kukivuna pakivuna mukivuna
"If not"
Negative nisipovuna tusipovuna usipovuna msipovuna asipovuna wasipovuna usipovuna isipovuna lisipovuna yasipovuna kisipovuna visipovuna isipovuna zisipovuna usipovuna kusipovuna pasipovuna musipovuna
Consecutive
Positive nikavuna tukavuna ukavuna mkavuna akavuna wakavuna ukavuna ikavuna likavuna yakavuna kikavuna vikavuna ikavuna zikavuna ukavuna kukavuna pakavuna mukavuna
Not all possible forms are listed in the table. Transitive verbs can take object concords, relative concords can agree with all noun classes, and many other forms not commonly seen in modern Standard Swahili are absent from the table. See Appendix:Swahili verbs for more information.

Derived terms[edit]


Zulu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Nguni [Term?], from Proto-Bantu *-búna.

Verb[edit]

-vuna?

  1. (transitive) to harvest

Inflection[edit]

Tone H
Infinitive ukuvuna
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuvuna ukungavuni
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular vuna vune
Plural vunani vuneni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyavuna, ngivuna engivunayo, engivuna ngivuna angivuni engingavuni ngingavuni
2nd singular uyavuna, uvuna ovunayo, ovuna uvuna awuvuni ongavuni ungavuni
1st plural siyavuna, sivuna esivunayo, esivuna sivuna asivuni esingavuni singavuni
2nd plural niyavuna, nivuna enivunayo, enivuna nivuna anivuni eningavuni ningavuni
Class 1 uyavuna, uvuna ovunayo, ovuna evuna akavuni ongavuni engavuni
Class 2 bayavuna, bavuna abavunayo, abavuna bevuna abavuni abangavuni bengavuni
Class 3 uyavuna, uvuna ovunayo, ovuna uvuna awuvuni ongavuni ungavuni
Class 4 iyavuna, ivuna evunayo, evuna ivuna ayivuni engavuni ingavuni
Class 5 liyavuna, livuna elivunayo, elivuna livuna alivuni elingavuni lingavuni
Class 6 ayavuna, avuna avunayo, avuna evuna awavuni angavuni engavuni
Class 7 siyavuna, sivuna esivunayo, esivuna sivuna asivuni esingavuni singavuni
Class 8 ziyavuna, zivuna ezivunayo, ezivuna zivuna azivuni ezingavuni zingavuni
Class 9 iyavuna, ivuna evunayo, evuna ivuna ayivuni engavuni ingavuni
Class 10 ziyavuna, zivuna ezivunayo, ezivuna zivuna azivuni ezingavuni zingavuni
Class 11 luyavuna, luvuna oluvunayo, oluvuna luvuna aluvuni olungavuni lungavuni
Class 14 buyavuna, buvuna obuvunayo, obuvuna buvuna abuvuni obungavuni bungavuni
Class 15 kuyavuna, kuvuna okuvunayo, okuvuna kuvuna akuvuni okungavuni kungavuni
Class 17 kuyavuna, kuvuna okuvunayo, okuvuna kuvuna akuvuni okungavuni kungavuni
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngivunile, ngivunē engivunile, engivunē ngivunile, ngivunē angivunanga engingavunanga ngingavunanga
2nd singular uvunile, uvunē ovunile, ovunē uvunile, uvunē awuvunanga ongavunanga ungavunanga
1st plural sivunile, sivunē esivunile, esivunē sivunile, sivunē asivunanga esingavunanga singavunanga
2nd plural nivunile, nivunē enivunile, enivunē nivunile, nivunē anivunanga eningavunanga ningavunanga
Class 1 uvunile, uvunē ovunile, ovunē evunile, evunē akavunanga ongavunanga engavunanga
Class 2 bavunile, bavunē abavunile, abavunē bevunile, bevunē abavunanga abangavunanga bengavunanga
Class 3 uvunile, uvunē ovunile, ovunē uvunile, uvunē awuvunanga ongavunanga ungavunanga
Class 4 ivunile, ivunē evunile, evunē ivunile, ivunē ayivunanga engavunanga ingavunanga
Class 5 livunile, livunē elivunile, elivunē livunile, livunē alivunanga elingavunanga lingavunanga
Class 6 avunile, avunē avunile, avunē evunile, evunē awavunanga angavunanga engavunanga
Class 7 sivunile, sivunē esivunile, esivunē sivunile, sivunē asivunanga esingavunanga singavunanga
Class 8 zivunile, zivunē ezivunile, ezivunē zivunile, zivunē azivunanga ezingavunanga zingavunanga
Class 9 ivunile, ivunē evunile, evunē ivunile, ivunē ayivunanga engavunanga ingavunanga
Class 10 zivunile, zivunē ezivunile, ezivunē zivunile, zivunē azivunanga ezingavunanga zingavunanga
Class 11 luvunile, luvunē oluvunile, oluvunē luvunile, luvunē aluvunanga olungavunanga lungavunanga
Class 14 buvunile, buvunē obuvunile, obuvunē buvunile, buvunē abuvunanga obungavunanga bungavunanga
Class 15 kuvunile, kuvunē okuvunile, okuvunē kuvunile, kuvunē akuvunanga okungavunanga kungavunanga
Class 17 kuvunile, kuvunē okuvunile, okuvunē kuvunile, kuvunē akuvunanga okungavunanga kungavunanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāvuna engāvuna ngāvuna angivunanga engingavunanga ngingavunanga
2nd singular wāvuna owāvuna wāvuna awuvunanga ongavunanga ungavunanga
1st plural sāvuna esāvuna sāvuna asivunanga esingavunanga singavunanga
2nd plural nāvuna enāvuna nāvuna anivunanga eningavunanga ningavunanga
Class 1 wāvuna owāvuna āvuna akavunanga ongavunanga engavunanga
Class 2 bāvuna abāvuna bāvuna abavunanga abangavunanga bengavunanga
Class 3 wāvuna owāvuna wāvuna awuvunanga ongavunanga ungavunanga
Class 4 yāvuna eyāvuna yāvuna ayivunanga engavunanga ingavunanga
Class 5 lāvuna elāvuna lāvuna alivunanga elingavunanga lingavunanga
Class 6 āvuna āvuna āvuna awavunanga angavunanga engavunanga
Class 7 sāvuna esāvuna sāvuna asivunanga esingavunanga singavunanga
Class 8 zāvuna ezāvuna zāvuna azivunanga ezingavunanga zingavunanga
Class 9 yāvuna eyāvuna yāvuna ayivunanga engavunanga ingavunanga
Class 10 zāvuna ezāvuna zāvuna azivunanga ezingavunanga zingavunanga
Class 11 lwāvuna olwāvuna lwāvuna aluvunanga olungavunanga lungavunanga
Class 14 bāvuna obāvuna bāvuna abuvunanga obungavunanga bungavunanga
Class 15 kwāvuna okwāvuna kwāvuna akuvunanga okungavunanga kungavunanga
Class 17 kwāvuna okwāvuna kwāvuna akuvunanga okungavunanga kungavunanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingavuna ngingavuna ngingevune ngingevune
2nd singular ungavuna ungavuna ungevune ungevune
1st plural singavuna singavuna singevune singevune
2nd plural ningavuna ningavuna ningevune ningevune
Class 1 angavuna engavuna angevune engevune
Class 2 bangavuna bengavuna bangevune bengevune
Class 3 ungavuna ungavuna ungevune ungevune
Class 4 ingavuna ingavuna ingevune ingevune
Class 5 lingavuna lingavuna lingevune lingevune
Class 6 angavuna engavuna angevune engevune
Class 7 singavuna singavuna singevune singevune
Class 8 zingavuna zingavuna zingevune zingevune
Class 9 ingavuna ingavuna ingevune ingevune
Class 10 zingavuna zingavuna zingevune zingevune
Class 11 lungavuna lungavuna lungevune lungevune
Class 14 bungavuna bungavuna bungevune bungevune
Class 15 kungavuna kungavuna kungevune kungevune
Class 17 kungavuna kungavuna kungevune kungevune
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizovuna engizovuna ngizovuna angizuvuna ngingezuvuna
2nd singular uzovuna ozovuna uzovuna awuzuvuna ungezuvuna
1st plural sizovuna esizovuna sizovuna asizuvuna singezuvuna
2nd plural nizovuna enizovuna nizovuna anizuvuna ningezuvuna
Class 1 uzovuna ozovuna ezovuna akazuvuna engezuvuna
Class 2 bazovuna abazovuna bezovuna abazuvuna bengezuvuna
Class 3 uzovuna ozovuna uzovuna awuzuvuna ungezuvuna
Class 4 izovuna ezovuna izovuna ayizuvuna ingezuvuna
Class 5 lizovuna elizovuna lizovuna alizuvuna lingezuvuna
Class 6 azovuna azovuna ezovuna awazuvuna engezuvuna
Class 7 sizovuna esizovuna sizovuna asizuvuna singezuvuna
Class 8 zizovuna ezizovuna zizovuna azizuvuna zingezuvuna
Class 9 izovuna ezovuna izovuna ayizuvuna ingezuvuna
Class 10 zizovuna ezizovuna zizovuna azizuvuna zingezuvuna
Class 11 luzovuna oluzovuna luzovuna aluzuvuna lungezuvuna
Class 14 buzovuna obuzovuna buzovuna abuzuvuna bungezuvuna
Class 15 kuzovuna okuzovuna kuzovuna akuzuvuna kungezuvuna
Class 17 kuzovuna okuzovuna kuzovuna akuzuvuna kungezuvuna
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyovuna engiyovuna ngiyovuna angiyuvuna ngingeyuvuna
2nd singular uyovuna oyovuna uyovuna awuyuvuna ungeyuvuna
1st plural siyovuna esiyovuna siyovuna asiyuvuna singeyuvuna
2nd plural niyovuna eniyovuna niyovuna aniyuvuna ningeyuvuna
Class 1 uyovuna oyovuna eyovuna akayuvuna engeyuvuna
Class 2 bayovuna abayovuna beyovuna abayuvuna bengeyuvuna
Class 3 uyovuna oyovuna uyovuna awuyuvuna ungeyuvuna
Class 4 iyovuna eyovuna iyovuna ayiyuvuna ingeyuvuna
Class 5 liyovuna eliyovuna liyovuna aliyuvuna lingeyuvuna
Class 6 ayovuna ayovuna eyovuna awayuvuna engeyuvuna
Class 7 siyovuna esiyovuna siyovuna asiyuvuna singeyuvuna
Class 8 ziyovuna eziyovuna ziyovuna aziyuvuna zingeyuvuna
Class 9 iyovuna eyovuna iyovuna ayiyuvuna ingeyuvuna
Class 10 ziyovuna eziyovuna ziyovuna aziyuvuna zingeyuvuna
Class 11 luyovuna oluyovuna luyovuna aluyuvuna lungeyuvuna
Class 14 buyovuna obuyovuna buyovuna abuyuvuna bungeyuvuna
Class 15 kuyovuna okuyovuna kuyovuna akuyuvuna kungeyuvuna
Class 17 kuyovuna okuyovuna kuyovuna akuyuvuna kungeyuvuna
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngivune ngingavuni
2nd singular uvune ungavuni
1st plural sivune singavuni
2nd plural nivune ningavuni
Class 1 avune angavuni
Class 2 bavune bangavuni
Class 3 uvune ungavuni
Class 4 ivune ingavuni
Class 5 livune lingavuni
Class 6 avune angavuni
Class 7 sivune singavuni
Class 8 zivune zingavuni
Class 9 ivune ingavuni
Class 10 zivune zingavuni
Class 11 luvune lungavuni
Class 14 buvune bungavuni
Class 15 kuvune kungavuni
Class 17 kuvune kungavuni
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngavuna angivuna
2nd singular wavuna awuvuna
1st plural savuna asivuna
2nd plural navuna anivuna
Class 1 wavuna akavuna
Class 2 bavuna abavuna
Class 3 wavuna awuvuna
Class 4 yavuna ayivuna
Class 5 lavuna alivuna
Class 6 avuna awavuna
Class 7 savuna asivuna
Class 8 zavuna azivuna
Class 9 yavuna ayivuna
Class 10 zavuna azivuna
Class 11 lwavuna aluvuna
Class 14 bavuna abuvuna
Class 15 kwavuna akuvuna
Class 17 kwavuna akuvuna

Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Verb[edit]

-vuna?

  1. (transitive) to side with (in a dispute), to be partial towards

Inflection[edit]

Tone L
Infinitive ukuvuna
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuvuna ukungavuni
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular vuna vune
Plural vunani vuneni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyavuna, ngivuna engivunayo, engivuna ngivuna angivuni engingavuni ngingavuni
2nd singular uyavuna, uvuna ovunayo, ovuna uvuna awuvuni ongavuni ungavuni
1st plural siyavuna, sivuna esivunayo, esivuna sivuna asivuni esingavuni singavuni
2nd plural niyavuna, nivuna enivunayo, enivuna nivuna anivuni eningavuni ningavuni
Class 1 uyavuna, uvuna ovunayo, ovuna evuna akavuni ongavuni engavuni
Class 2 bayavuna, bavuna abavunayo, abavuna bevuna abavuni abangavuni bengavuni
Class 3 uyavuna, uvuna ovunayo, ovuna uvuna awuvuni ongavuni ungavuni
Class 4 iyavuna, ivuna evunayo, evuna ivuna ayivuni engavuni ingavuni
Class 5 liyavuna, livuna elivunayo, elivuna livuna alivuni elingavuni lingavuni
Class 6 ayavuna, avuna avunayo, avuna evuna awavuni angavuni engavuni
Class 7 siyavuna, sivuna esivunayo, esivuna sivuna asivuni esingavuni singavuni
Class 8 ziyavuna, zivuna ezivunayo, ezivuna zivuna azivuni ezingavuni zingavuni
Class 9 iyavuna, ivuna evunayo, evuna ivuna ayivuni engavuni ingavuni
Class 10 ziyavuna, zivuna ezivunayo, ezivuna zivuna azivuni ezingavuni zingavuni
Class 11 luyavuna, luvuna oluvunayo, oluvuna luvuna aluvuni olungavuni lungavuni
Class 14 buyavuna, buvuna obuvunayo, obuvuna buvuna abuvuni obungavuni bungavuni
Class 15 kuyavuna, kuvuna okuvunayo, okuvuna kuvuna akuvuni okungavuni kungavuni
Class 17 kuyavuna, kuvuna okuvunayo, okuvuna kuvuna akuvuni okungavuni kungavuni
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngivunile, ngivunē engivunile, engivunē ngivunile, ngivunē angivunanga engingavunanga ngingavunanga
2nd singular uvunile, uvunē ovunile, ovunē uvunile, uvunē awuvunanga ongavunanga ungavunanga
1st plural sivunile, sivunē esivunile, esivunē sivunile, sivunē asivunanga esingavunanga singavunanga
2nd plural nivunile, nivunē enivunile, enivunē nivunile, nivunē anivunanga eningavunanga ningavunanga
Class 1 uvunile, uvunē ovunile, ovunē evunile, evunē akavunanga ongavunanga engavunanga
Class 2 bavunile, bavunē abavunile, abavunē bevunile, bevunē abavunanga abangavunanga bengavunanga
Class 3 uvunile, uvunē ovunile, ovunē uvunile, uvunē awuvunanga ongavunanga ungavunanga
Class 4 ivunile, ivunē evunile, evunē ivunile, ivunē ayivunanga engavunanga ingavunanga
Class 5 livunile, livunē elivunile, elivunē livunile, livunē alivunanga elingavunanga lingavunanga
Class 6 avunile, avunē avunile, avunē evunile, evunē awavunanga angavunanga engavunanga
Class 7 sivunile, sivunē esivunile, esivunē sivunile, sivunē asivunanga esingavunanga singavunanga
Class 8 zivunile, zivunē ezivunile, ezivunē zivunile, zivunē azivunanga ezingavunanga zingavunanga
Class 9 ivunile, ivunē evunile, evunē ivunile, ivunē ayivunanga engavunanga ingavunanga
Class 10 zivunile, zivunē ezivunile, ezivunē zivunile, zivunē azivunanga ezingavunanga zingavunanga
Class 11 luvunile, luvunē oluvunile, oluvunē luvunile, luvunē aluvunanga olungavunanga lungavunanga
Class 14 buvunile, buvunē obuvunile, obuvunē buvunile, buvunē abuvunanga obungavunanga bungavunanga
Class 15 kuvunile, kuvunē okuvunile, okuvunē kuvunile, kuvunē akuvunanga okungavunanga kungavunanga
Class 17 kuvunile, kuvunē okuvunile, okuvunē kuvunile, kuvunē akuvunanga okungavunanga kungavunanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāvuna engāvuna ngāvuna angivunanga engingavunanga ngingavunanga
2nd singular wāvuna owāvuna wāvuna awuvunanga ongavunanga ungavunanga
1st plural sāvuna esāvuna sāvuna asivunanga esingavunanga singavunanga
2nd plural nāvuna enāvuna nāvuna anivunanga eningavunanga ningavunanga
Class 1 wāvuna owāvuna āvuna akavunanga ongavunanga engavunanga
Class 2 bāvuna abāvuna bāvuna abavunanga abangavunanga bengavunanga
Class 3 wāvuna owāvuna wāvuna awuvunanga ongavunanga ungavunanga
Class 4 yāvuna eyāvuna yāvuna ayivunanga engavunanga ingavunanga
Class 5 lāvuna elāvuna lāvuna alivunanga elingavunanga lingavunanga
Class 6 āvuna āvuna āvuna awavunanga angavunanga engavunanga
Class 7 sāvuna esāvuna sāvuna asivunanga esingavunanga singavunanga
Class 8 zāvuna ezāvuna zāvuna azivunanga ezingavunanga zingavunanga
Class 9 yāvuna eyāvuna yāvuna ayivunanga engavunanga ingavunanga
Class 10 zāvuna ezāvuna zāvuna azivunanga ezingavunanga zingavunanga
Class 11 lwāvuna olwāvuna lwāvuna aluvunanga olungavunanga lungavunanga
Class 14 bāvuna obāvuna bāvuna abuvunanga obungavunanga bungavunanga
Class 15 kwāvuna okwāvuna kwāvuna akuvunanga okungavunanga kungavunanga
Class 17 kwāvuna okwāvuna kwāvuna akuvunanga okungavunanga kungavunanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingavuna ngingavuna ngingevune ngingevune
2nd singular ungavuna ungavuna ungevune ungevune
1st plural singavuna singavuna singevune singevune
2nd plural ningavuna ningavuna ningevune ningevune
Class 1 angavuna engavuna angevune engevune
Class 2 bangavuna bengavuna bangevune bengevune
Class 3 ungavuna ungavuna ungevune ungevune
Class 4 ingavuna ingavuna ingevune ingevune
Class 5 lingavuna lingavuna lingevune lingevune
Class 6 angavuna engavuna angevune engevune
Class 7 singavuna singavuna singevune singevune
Class 8 zingavuna zingavuna zingevune zingevune
Class 9 ingavuna ingavuna ingevune ingevune
Class 10 zingavuna zingavuna zingevune zingevune
Class 11 lungavuna lungavuna lungevune lungevune
Class 14 bungavuna bungavuna bungevune bungevune
Class 15 kungavuna kungavuna kungevune kungevune
Class 17 kungavuna kungavuna kungevune kungevune
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizovuna engizovuna ngizovuna angizuvuna ngingezuvuna
2nd singular uzovuna ozovuna uzovuna awuzuvuna ungezuvuna
1st plural sizovuna esizovuna sizovuna asizuvuna singezuvuna
2nd plural nizovuna enizovuna nizovuna anizuvuna ningezuvuna
Class 1 uzovuna ozovuna ezovuna akazuvuna engezuvuna
Class 2 bazovuna abazovuna bezovuna abazuvuna bengezuvuna
Class 3 uzovuna ozovuna uzovuna awuzuvuna ungezuvuna
Class 4 izovuna ezovuna izovuna ayizuvuna ingezuvuna
Class 5 lizovuna elizovuna lizovuna alizuvuna lingezuvuna
Class 6 azovuna azovuna ezovuna awazuvuna engezuvuna
Class 7 sizovuna esizovuna sizovuna asizuvuna singezuvuna
Class 8 zizovuna ezizovuna zizovuna azizuvuna zingezuvuna
Class 9 izovuna ezovuna izovuna ayizuvuna ingezuvuna
Class 10 zizovuna ezizovuna zizovuna azizuvuna zingezuvuna
Class 11 luzovuna oluzovuna luzovuna aluzuvuna lungezuvuna
Class 14 buzovuna obuzovuna buzovuna abuzuvuna bungezuvuna
Class 15 kuzovuna okuzovuna kuzovuna akuzuvuna kungezuvuna
Class 17 kuzovuna okuzovuna kuzovuna akuzuvuna kungezuvuna
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyovuna engiyovuna ngiyovuna angiyuvuna ngingeyuvuna
2nd singular uyovuna oyovuna uyovuna awuyuvuna ungeyuvuna
1st plural siyovuna esiyovuna siyovuna asiyuvuna singeyuvuna
2nd plural niyovuna eniyovuna niyovuna aniyuvuna ningeyuvuna
Class 1 uyovuna oyovuna eyovuna akayuvuna engeyuvuna
Class 2 bayovuna abayovuna beyovuna abayuvuna bengeyuvuna
Class 3 uyovuna oyovuna uyovuna awuyuvuna ungeyuvuna
Class 4 iyovuna eyovuna iyovuna ayiyuvuna ingeyuvuna
Class 5 liyovuna eliyovuna liyovuna aliyuvuna lingeyuvuna
Class 6 ayovuna ayovuna eyovuna awayuvuna engeyuvuna
Class 7 siyovuna esiyovuna siyovuna asiyuvuna singeyuvuna
Class 8 ziyovuna eziyovuna ziyovuna aziyuvuna zingeyuvuna
Class 9 iyovuna eyovuna iyovuna ayiyuvuna ingeyuvuna
Class 10 ziyovuna eziyovuna ziyovuna aziyuvuna zingeyuvuna
Class 11 luyovuna oluyovuna luyovuna aluyuvuna lungeyuvuna
Class 14 buyovuna obuyovuna buyovuna abuyuvuna bungeyuvuna
Class 15 kuyovuna okuyovuna kuyovuna akuyuvuna kungeyuvuna
Class 17 kuyovuna okuyovuna kuyovuna akuyuvuna kungeyuvuna
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngivune ngingavuni
2nd singular uvune ungavuni
1st plural sivune singavuni
2nd plural nivune ningavuni
Class 1 avune angavuni
Class 2 bavune bangavuni
Class 3 uvune ungavuni
Class 4 ivune ingavuni
Class 5 livune lingavuni
Class 6 avune angavuni
Class 7 sivune singavuni
Class 8 zivune zingavuni
Class 9 ivune ingavuni
Class 10 zivune zingavuni
Class 11 luvune lungavuni
Class 14 buvune bungavuni
Class 15 kuvune kungavuni
Class 17 kuvune kungavuni
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngavuna angivuna
2nd singular wavuna awuvuna
1st plural savuna asivuna
2nd plural navuna anivuna
Class 1 wavuna akavuna
Class 2 bavuna abavuna
Class 3 wavuna awuvuna
Class 4 yavuna ayivuna
Class 5 lavuna alivuna
Class 6 avuna awavuna
Class 7 savuna asivuna
Class 8 zavuna azivuna
Class 9 yavuna ayivuna
Class 10 zavuna azivuna
Class 11 lwavuna aluvuna
Class 14 bavuna abuvuna
Class 15 kwavuna akuvuna
Class 17 kwavuna akuvuna

References[edit]