wesan

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Old Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *wesan, from Proto-Germanic *wesaną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes-.

Verb[edit]

wesan

  1. to be

Inflection[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Dutch: wēsen
    • Dutch: wezen
      • Afrikaans: wees
      • Jersey Dutch: wêze
      • Negerhollands: wees, wis
    • Limburgish: waeze

Further reading[edit]

  • wesan”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *wesan, from Proto-Germanic *wesaną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes-. The simple present forms originate from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es- (to be), which had no infinitive or past tense in Proto-Germanic, but had already formed a single paradigm with *wesaną supplying the infinitive and past tense.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈwe.sɑn/, [ˈwe.zɑn]

Verb[edit]

wesan

  1. to be, exist
Usage notes[edit]

The verb “to be” in Old English was suppletive, and used forms from at least three different roots. There were two distinct present stems, for which wesan and bēon were the two infinitive forms. The present bēon was used to express permanent truths (the “gnomic present”), while wesan was used for the imperative, present participle, and the preterite. They shared the same past tense forms.

Conjugation[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *wesaną (to consume, feast), derived from Proto-Indo-European *wes- (to graze).[1] Whether this verb even exists is uncertain. The only possible attestation is the form weaxan in line 3115 of s:Beowulf, which has been hypothesized to be a misspelling of weosan.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈwe.sɑn/, [ˈwe.zɑn]

Verb[edit]

wesan

  1. to feast

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *wōsijaną, from *wōsą.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈweː.sɑn/, [ˈweː.zɑn]

Verb[edit]

wēsan

  1. to soak; to macerate; to dye
  2. to ooze
Conjugation[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “Wesan- 2”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  2. ^ Seebold, Elmar (1970), “WES-A- 2”, in Vergleichendes und etymologisches Wörterbuch der germanischen starken Verben (Janua Linguarum. Series practica; 85) (in German), Paris, Den Haag: Mouton, →ISBN: “562-63”

Old High German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • sīn (less common infinitive, but became common over time)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *wesan, from Proto-Germanic *wesaną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes-.

Verb[edit]

wesan

  1. to be, exist

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *wesan, from Proto-Germanic *wesaną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes-. The forms in b- derive from Proto-Germanic *beuną (to be, exist, become), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuH- (to grow, become, appear).

Verb[edit]

wesan

  1. to be

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • sīn (rare infinitive)

Descendants[edit]


Tok Pisin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English white sand.

Noun[edit]

wesan

  1. sand

Related terms[edit]