Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+8B19, 謙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8B19

[U+8B18]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8B1A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 149, +10, 17 strokes, cangjie input 卜口廿X金 (YRTXC), four-corner 08637, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1175, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35821
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1639, character 36
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4009, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+8B19

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
2nd round simp. 𰵋

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
謙-seal.svg 謙-bigseal.svg

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (OC *kʰreːms, *kʰreːmʔ, *kʰeːmʔ, *kʰeːms, “deficient”), (OC *ɡ·rem, “upright; having integrity; uncorrupt”) (Schuessler, 2007), Tibetan ཁྲམ་པ (khram pa, modest) (Geilich, 1995).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕʰiã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕʰiã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡ɕʰien⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕʰiɪ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕʰiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰi³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰiẽ³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰiẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kʰiam⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kʰiɑm²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /him⁵³/
Nanning /him⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /him⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰiam⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰieŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kiŋ⁵⁴/
/kʰiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰiam³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xiam²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (29)
Final () (157)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰem/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰem/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰɛm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰɛm/
Li
Rong
/kʰem/
Wang
Li
/kʰiem/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰiem/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiān
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
him1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ khem ›
Old
Chinese
/*k-r̥ˁem/
English modest

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6070
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰeːm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. humble; modest
  2. 15th hexagram of the I Ching

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1]

謙󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
U8b19-kyu.svg
謙󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. humble; modest

Readings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015—2023

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 사양할 (sayanghal gyeom))

  1. Hanja form? of (refuse, decline).
  2. Hanja form? of (humble, modest).