سنة

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See also: سنتand سنہ

Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Semitic *šan-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

سَنَة (sanaf (plural سَنَوَات(sanawāt) or سِنُون(sinūn) or سِنِين(sinīn))

  1. year
    Synonyms: عَام(ʿām), حَوْل(ḥawl)
Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

According to Ibn Manzur, some speakers decline the nūn in سِنين, treating it as an irregular plural. Accordingly, the yā' does not change to wāw whence using this form.

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with Hebrew שֵׁנָה(šēnā, sleep, slumber) and Mehri شنيت(sleep, slumber).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

سِنَة (sinaf

  1. drowsiness
    Synonym: نُعَاس(nuʿās)
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 2:255:
      اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ۚ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ
      Allah—there is no god except Him, the Living One, the All-sustainer. Neither drowsiness befalls Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that may intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not comprehend anything of His knowledge except what He wills. His seat embraces the heavens and the earth and He is not wearied by their preservation. And He is the All-exalted, the All-supreme.
  2. slumber; nap
    Synonym: قَيْلُولَة(qaylūla)

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From the root س ن ن(s-n-n); compare سَنَّ(sanna, to establish (a law, custom, etc.)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

سُنَّة (sunnaf (plural سُنَن(sunan))

  1. (countable) a usual, recurrent, continual, determinable, or constant thing
    1. (countable) a common, habitual, popularized, or enforced practice; a custom, convention, or ritual; a social norm or standard
      Synonyms: عُرْف(ʿurf), عَادَة(ʿāda), تَقْلِيد(taqlīd)
      • a. 1002, Ibn Jinnī, الخصائص:
        وهذا عادة للعرب مألوفة وسنة مسلوكة: إذا أعطوا شيئًا من شيء حكمًا ما قابلوا ذلك بأن يعطوا المأخوذ منه حكمًا من أحكام صاحبه عمارة لبينهما وتتميمًا للشبه الجامع لهما. وعليه باب ما لا ينصرف ألا تراهم لما شبهوا الاسم بالفعل فلم يصرفوه؛ كذلك شبهوا الفعل بالاسم فأعربوه
        This is a familiar Arab custom and a recurrent practice. For when they judged a part of some thing to be such-and-such, they also qualified the thing itself from which a part has been taken as having some attribute of the part so as to balance the whole and the part and to formulate their commonly shared similarities. And on this, nunation (or the lack thereof) was modeled. Do you not see how they sometimes likened the noun to the verb and thus did not nunate it and other times likened the verb to the noun and thus suffixed it in the manner of nouns?
    2. (uncountable) the conduct, habits, behavior, or mannerisms of a person (viewed collectively)
    3. (countable) a determinate or predetermined universal law (either normative or historical)
      سُنَنُ الْكَوْنِ وَٱلتَّارِيخِ
      sunanu l-kawni wat-tārīḵi
      the [determinative] laws of history and the universe
      • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 33:
        لَئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْمُرْجِفُونَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ لَنُغْرِيَنَّكَ بِهِمْ ثُمَّ لا يُجَاوِرُونَكَ فِيهَا إِلاَّ قَلِيلا / مَلْعُونِينَ أَيْنَمَا ثُقِفُوا أُخِذُوا وَقُتِّلُوا تَقْتِيلا / سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ فِي الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِن قَبْلُ وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلا
        If the dissimulators, those whose hearts are diseased, and the [demoralizing] scaremongers in Medina do not stop, We shall [first] incite you against them, and then they shall never neighbor you in it but [very] rarely. / Cursed [are they] wherever they are espied—they shall be captured and slaughtered! / [Such was] the Law of Allah for those who perished in the past, and you shall never find any alteration in the Law of Allah.
  2. (countable, Islam) a narrative attributed to an Islamic religious figure (typically Prophet Muhammad), a tradition; a hadith
    جَامِعُ ٱلسُّنَنِ وَالْمَسَانِيدِ
    jāmiʿu s-sunani wālmasānīdi
    The Compilation of Religious Traditions and Chains of Narration
    Synonyms: رِوَايَة(riwāya), أَثَر(ʾaṯar), حَدِيث(ḥadīṯ)
    1. (uncountable, Islam) the body of narratives attributed to Islamic religious figures (viewed collectively)
  3. (countable, Islam) a religiously canonized tradition or practice
    Antonyms: بِدْعَة(bidʿa, an uncanonical or heterodox innovation; a heterodoxy; an newly introduced deviation or degeneration), زَنْدَقَة(zandaqa, a heresy)
    1. (uncountable, Islam, see usage notes) the set of canonical traditions whence orthodoxy and orthopraxy are derived (viewed collectively)
      Hypernym: شَرِيعَة(šarīʿa, the set of religious ordinances)
    2. (uncountable, Islam, approving, see usage notes) adherence to the religious traditions, traditionalism; orthodoxy and orthopraxy
      Antonyms: بِدْعَة(bidʿa, heterodoxy; heteropraxy), زَنْدَقَة(zandaqa, misbelief, heresy)
    3. (countable, Islam) a traditional religious practice for which there is a divine reward but for whose omission there is no punishment, a commendable supererogatory act often done as an expression of faith, a religious work of supererogation
      Coordinate term: فَرْض(farḍ)
      أَسُنَّةٌ الْخِتانُ أَمْ فَرْضٌ فِي مَذْهَبِنَا؟‎‎
      ʾasunnatun al-ḵitānu ʾam farḍun fī maḏhabinā?
      Is circumcision recommended or obligatory in our school of law?
  4. (Islam, see usage notes) the Sunni sect or the adherents thereof (viewed collectively); Sunnism
    مَا أَبْرَزُ الِاخْتِلَافَاتِ الْفِقْهِيَّةِ بَيْنَ السُّنَّةِ وَالشِّيعَة؟‎‎
    What are the major jurisprudential differences between Sunnites and Shiites?
  5. (countable, obsolete) an image, a form, an appearance, a look
    • أما العليق فمعروف وأما الورد الجبلي وورد الكلب وهو المعروف عند أهل الطب بالنسرين قال أبو حنيفة الورد الجبلي يشبه الورد ويشبه ذلك بعض سنة العليق وثمره شبيه العنب الدليك وهو أحمر يشبه البسر إلا أن طرفه محدود وفي داخله شبه الصوف ونواره نوار الورد أبيض يشوبه حمرة
      In what concerns the bramble, it is well known, and in what concerns the mountain-rose and the dog-rose, it is well-known among the physicians as nisrīn; Abū Ḥanīfa said the mountain-rose resembles the rose, and this resembles a bit the image of the bramble, and the fruit is similar to the dust-vine; it is red and resembles the unripe date, except that its tip is pointed, and in its inner there is a kind of wool, and its blossom is that of a white rose with an admixture of red.
Usage notes[edit]
  • In the sense of "religious traditions", the term is almost always approving, as it also implies adherence to the said traditions, hence orthodoxy in general. As such, it has come to be a common self-designation for diverse groups, and so it is never used to refer to ideological and sectarian rivals in polemics.
  • In the sense of "Sunnism", the term is also usually an approving denomination, though it is also used neutrally to single out those sects that employ other terms as their self-designations, such as شِيعَة (šīʿa). Compare the meanings of catholic and orthodox in English, the latter of which is found in the names of several Christian denominations and churches.
  • While سُنَّة (sunna) is used to signify both “normative teachings recorded in hadiths” and “recommended practices”, this does not mean that hadiths are never interpreted as commandments and hard obligations (as in the establishment of the number of daily obligatory prayers). As the principal source of orthodoxy, they do so very often. In the same way, that سُنَّة (sunna) also refers to the “Sunni sect” does not mean that other sects with different names do not have "a Sunnah" (that is, a religious canon).
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
References[edit]
  • Wehr, Hans, “سن”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic[1], 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, 1979, →ISBN

Egyptian Arabic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic سَنَة(sana, year).

Noun[edit]

سنة (sánaf, pl سنين‎ (sínīn) سنوات‎ (sánawāt)

  1. year

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Spiro, Socrates (1895). An Arabic-English vocabulary of the colloquial Arabic of Egypt, containing the vernacular idioms and expressions, slang phrases, etc., etc., used by the native Egyptians Cairo: Al-Mokattam Printing Office.
  • Hinds, Martin; Badawi, El-Said (1986). A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic Beirut: Librairie du Liban.

Moroccan Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic سَنة(sana).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /sa.na/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

سنة (sanaf (dual سنتين(santayn), plural سنين(snīn) or سنوات(sanawāt))

  1. year
    Synonym: عام(ʕām)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic سِنّ(sinn).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

سنة (sannaf (plural سنان(snān), diminutive سنينة(snīna))

  1. tooth