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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 142 +10, 16 strokes, cangjie input 一月中一戈 (MBLMI), four-corner 15236, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1092, character 42
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 33384
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1557, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2877, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+878D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𧖓

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *luŋ): semantic  ‎(cauldron) + phonetic  ‎(OC *l'uŋ, *l'uŋs).

Etymology[edit]

“Hot air; steam; heat” > “to melt” > “to blend”.

Sino-Tibetan; compare Burmese လောင် ‎(laung, to burn; to be burnt; to scorch). Related to (OC *l'uŋ, *l'uŋs, “hot; hot air; hot weather”) (as in 蟲蟲), (OC *l'uːŋ, *l'uŋ, “hot weather”) and possibly the word family of *lVm: (OC *loms, “fire”).

It belongs to a word family comprised of characters meaning “to melt, to smelt, to fuse, to dissolve”. In modern times the various characters have taken on their specialised meanings:

  • (OC *luŋ, “to melt (at normal temperature); to blend”)
  • (OC *loŋ, “to smelt; to melt (at a high temperature)”)
  • (OC *loŋ, “to smelt; to melt (at a high temperature)”)
  • (OC *loŋ, *loŋʔ, “to dissolve (in a liquid)”)

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐuŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ʐuŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ʐuŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /luŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /iŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐuŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /yŋ²⁴/
Xining /yə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /yŋ⁵³/
/ʐuŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ỹn⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐuŋ⁵¹/
/vɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ioŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /yoŋ³¹/
Guiyang /ioŋ²¹/
Kunming /ioŋ³¹/
Nanjing /ioŋ²⁴/
Hefei /iŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /yəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /yŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ʐũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦioŋ²³/
Suzhou /ɦioŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɦioŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /joŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /yʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /in⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ioŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /in¹²/
Gan Nanchang /iuŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /iuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒuŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /joŋ²¹/
Nanning /juŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /juŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iɔŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /yŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œyŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ioŋ⁵⁵/
/iõ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zɔŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (36)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/iuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/juwŋ/
Li
Rong
/iuŋ/
Wang
Li
/jĭuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯uŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yóng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
róng
Middle
Chinese
‹ yuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*luŋ/ (? < *lum)
English hot air, steam, heat

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1509
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*luŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. hot air; steam (during cooking)
  2. to melt
  3. to mix; to blend; to fuse; to harmonise
  4. (economics) to circulate
  5. Short for 融城 (Róngchéng, “Fuqing, Fuzhou”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yung) (hangeul , revised yung, McCune-Reischauer yung, Yale yung)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(dung)

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