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U+878D, 融
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-878D

[U+878C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+878E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 142 +10, 16 strokes, cangjie input 一月中一戈 (MBLMI), four-corner 15236, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1092, character 42
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 33384
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1557, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2877, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+878D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𧖓

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'uːŋ
*l'uːŋ
*l'uːŋ
*l'uːŋ, *l'uŋ
*l'uŋ, *l'uŋs
*luŋ
*luŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *luŋ): semantic  (cauldron) + phonetic  (OC *l'uŋ, *l'uŋs).

Etymology[edit]

“Hot air; steam; heat” > “to melt” > “to blend”.

Sino-Tibetan; compare Burmese လောင် (laung, to burn; to be burnt; to scorch). Related to (OC *l'uŋ, *l'uŋs, “hot; hot air; hot weather”) (as in 蟲蟲 (OC *l'uŋ/l'uŋs l'uŋ/l'uŋs)), (OC *l'uːŋ, *l'uŋ, “hot weather”) and possibly the word family of *lVm: (OC *loms, “fire”).

It belongs to a word family comprised of characters meaning “to melt, to smelt, to fuse, to dissolve”. In modern times the various characters have taken on their specialised meanings:

  • (OC *luŋ, “to melt (at normal temperature); to blend”)
  • (OC *loŋ, “to smelt; to melt (at a high temperature)”)
  • (OC *loŋ, “to smelt; to melt (at a high temperature)”)
  • (OC *loŋ, *loŋʔ, “to dissolve (in a liquid)”)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hṳ̀ng - colloquial;
  • ṳ̀ng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note: hiông seems like a mistake in Moedict..

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐuŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /ʐuŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʐuŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /luŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /iŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /yŋ²⁴/
    Xining /yə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /yŋ⁵³/
    /ʐuŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ỹn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʐuŋ⁵¹/
    /vɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ioŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /yoŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /ioŋ²¹/
    Kunming /ioŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /ioŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /iŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /yəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /yŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦioŋ²³/
    Suzhou /ɦioŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɦioŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /joŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /yʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /in⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ioŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /in¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /iuŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /iuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒuŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /joŋ²¹/
    Nanning /juŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /juŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iɔŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /yŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œyŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ioŋ⁵⁵/
    /iõ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zɔŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (2)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jɨuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /iuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /juwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /iuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯uŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yóng
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    róng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ yuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*luŋ/ (? < *lum)
    English hot air, steam, heat

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1509
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*luŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. hot air; steam (during cooking)
    2. to melt
    3. to mix; to blend; to fuse; to harmonise
    4. (economics) to circulate
    5. Short for 融城 (Róngchéng, “Fuqing, Fuzhou”).

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (yung) (hangeul , revised yung, McCune-Reischauer yung, Yale yung)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (dung)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.