Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/s-la

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Camellia sinensis, the species from which tea is nowadays usually extracted.
Sonchus oleraceus, one of the bitter taste plants that referred to.
  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-la (Matisoff, STEDT)

Cognate with *lap (leaf), *lep ~ ljap (flat, thin, flat object); see there for more cognates.

This root is the eventual source of the words for "tea" in most non-Sino-Tibetan languages of the world, mostly borrowed from Chinese . Two Chinese sources of borrowing are usually distinguished:

  1. the affricativised varieties (e.g. Beijing Mandarin, Guangzhou Cantonese): which pronounce with an affricate initial /t͡sʰ, ʈ͡ʂʰ/.

       English:  chai
          Korean:   (cha, “cha”)
          Japanese:   (ちゃ, cha)
          Vietnamese:  trà, chè

  2. the plosive varieties (e.g. Min Nan) /t/.

       English:  tea
          Korean:   (da, “da”)
          Japanese:   (, da; ta)

The Chinese word might have originally been a loan from Loloish (Tibeto-Burman) *la ("leaf, tea"), as tea may have originated in Sichuan (Lolo area) (Sagart, 1999). Alternatively, Qiu (2000) suggests that it was a semantic extension from the root *la, the name of a bitter plant (Sonchus oleraceus).

A similar-shaped etymon exists in Proto-Mon-Khmer: *slaʔ (leaf) (Modern Mon သၠ (hlaʔ, leaf), Khmer ស្លា (slaa, areca palm), ស្លឹក (slǝk, leaf, sheet), Vietnamese (leaf)).

More at Tea#The word "tea" on Wikipedia.

Noun[edit]

*s-la

  1. leaf
  2. tea
  3. flat object

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*rlaː, laː, ɦlja/ (ZS), /*lˁra, lˁa, l̥a/ (B-S; unlisted, theoretical) (“bitter taste vegetable; weed; white flower; poison, harm; tea”)
    • Middle Chinese: /ɖɣa, ʑia, duo/, /ɖɣa/
      • Chinese:
        Mandarin:
        Beijing: /ʈ͡ʂʰa³⁵/
        Central Plains: /t͡sʰa²⁴/, /ʈ͡ʂʰa⁴²/
        Dungan: ца (ca) /t͡sʰaː²⁴/
        Jiaoliao: /ʈ͡ʂʰa⁴²/
        Jilu: /ʈ͡ʂʰa⁴²/, /t͡sʰɑ⁴⁵/
        Lanyin: /ʈ͡ʂʰa⁵³/, /t͡sʰa⁵¹/
        Lower Yangtze: /ʈ͡ʂʰa⁵⁵/, /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ²⁴/
        Northeastern: /ʈ͡ʂʰa²⁴/
        Southwestern:
        Chengdu: /t͡sʰa³¹/
        Guiyang: /t͡sʰa²¹/
        Kunming: /ʈ͡ʂʰa̠³¹/
        Wuhan: /t͡sʰa²¹³/
        Sichuanese: (ca2, /t͡sʰa²¹/)
        Standard: (chá, /ʈ͡ʂʰa³⁵/)
        Cantonese:
        Guangzhou: (caa4, /t͡sʰɑː²¹/)
        Hong Kong: /t͡sʰa²¹/
        Nanning: /t͡sʰa²¹/
        Taishanese: (ca3, /t͡sʰa²²/)
        Gan:
        Nanchang: /t͡sʰɑ²⁴/
        Hakka:
        Sixian: (chhà, /t͡sʰa¹¹/)
        Taoyuan: /t͡sʰɑ¹¹/
        Huizhou: /t͡sʰa⁴⁴/, /t͡sɔ⁴⁴/
        Jin: /t͡sʰa¹¹/, /t͡sɑ¹³/, /t͡sʰa³¹/
        Min:
        Min Bei:
        Jian'ou: (dâ, /ta³³/)
        Min Dong:
        Fuzhounese: (dà, /ta⁵³/)
        Min Nan:
        Hainanese: /ʔdɛ³¹/
        Hokkien:
        Amoy: (tê, /te²⁴/)
        Taiwanese: (tê, /te²⁴/)
        Zhuangzhou: (têe, /tɛ¹³/)
        Teochew: (5, /te⁵⁵/)
        Wu:
        Hangzhounese: /d͡zɑ²¹³/
        Shanghainese: (zo3, /z̻o²³/)
        Suzhounese: /zo¹³/
        Wenzhounese: /d͡zo³¹/
        Xiang:
        Changsha: /t͡sa¹³/
        Xiangtan: /d͡zɒ¹²/
      • → Japanese: (cha, [t͡ɕʲa̠])
      • Korean: (cha, [t͡ɕʰa])
      • Tibetan: (ja, tea)
  • Lolo-Burmese:

External links[edit]