finis

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See also: finís, finiš, and finiş

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English finis, from Latin fīnis (end; limit). Doublet of fine.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

finis

  1. The end (of a book or other work).
    • 1836, — Frederick Marryat, Mr Midshipman Easy
      He had gone through the work from the title-page to the finis at least forty times, and had just commenced it over again.
    • 1922 February, James Joyce, Ulysses, Paris: Shakespeare and Company, [], OCLC 560090630:
      , Episode 16
      Highly providential was the appearance on the scene of Corny Kelleher when Stephen was blissfully unconscious but for that man in the gap turning up at the eleventh hour the finis might have been that he might have been a candidate for the accident ward []

Esperanto[edit]

Verb[edit]

finis

  1. past of fini

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

finis

  1. masculine plural of fini

Verb[edit]

finis

  1. inflection of finir:
    1. first/second-person singular present indicative
    2. first/second-person singular past historic
    3. second-person singular imperative

Participle[edit]

finis m pl

  1. masculine plural of the past participle of finir

Ido[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

finis

  1. past of finar

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Disputed.[1] Perhaps for *fignis, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeygʷ- (to stick, set up), whence figō,[2] or for *fidnis, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyd- (to split), whence findō.

For the meaning, "region", compare pāgus again from a root meaning "to fix".

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

fīnis m (genitive fīnis); third declension

  1. end
    Antonyms: initium, prīmōrdium, prīncipium, exōrdium, orīgō, limen
    in finemeternally
    ad finemto the end
    finem facioI cease
    • 29-19 BC, Vergil. Aeneid, 1.199
      dabit Deus hīs quoque fīnem
      God will give an end to these (things) also.
  2. limit, border, bound boundary, frontier
    Synonyms: līmes, modus, cacūmen
  3. (in the plural) boundaries, bounds; by extension, territory, region, lands
  4. limit in duration, term (duration of a set length)
    • 27 BCE – 25 BCE, Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita libri 26.1:
      huic generī mīlitum senātus eundem, quem Cannēnsibus, fīnem statuērat mīlitiae.
      For this class of soldier the senate had established a limit in duration to their military service, which was the same as the men at Cannae.
  5. end, purpose, aim, object, telos
    Synonyms: voluntās, intentiō, cōnsilium, propositum, animus, mēns
  6. death, end (of life)
    Synonyms: mors, fūnus, fātum, exitus, perniciēs, somnus, sopor
  7. amount (in late juridical writings)

Usage notes[edit]

According to Lewis & Short, fīnis does occasionally appear as a feminine noun in both the ante-classical and post-classical eras.

Declension[edit]

Third-declension noun (i-stem, ablative singular in -e or ).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative fīnis fīnēs
Genitive fīnis fīnium
Dative fīnī fīnibus
Accusative fīnem fīnēs
fīnīs
Ablative fīne
fīnī
fīnibus
Vocative fīnis fīnēs

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Asturian: fin
  • Catalan: fi
  • Corsican: fine
  • Dalmatian: fain
  • Esperanto: fino
  • French: fin
  • Friulian: fin
  • Galician: fin
  • Istriot: feîn
  • Italian: fine
  • Ladin: fin
  • Leonese: fin
  • Occitan: fin
  • Portuguese: fim
  • Romanian: fine
  • Romansch: fin, fegn
  • Sardinian: fine, fini
  • Sicilian: fini
  • Spanish: fin
  • Venetian: fin
  • Walloon: fén
  • Proto-Brythonic: *fin (see there for further descendants)
  • Middle Irish: fín (see there for further descendants)

Verb[edit]

fīnīs

  1. second-person singular present active of fīniō

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  2. ^ Tucker, T.G., Etymological Dictionary of Latin, Ares Publishers, 1976 (reprint of 1931 edition)

Further reading[edit]

  • finis”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • finis”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • finis in Dizionario Latino, Olivetti
  • finis in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • finis in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to enlarge the boundaries of a kingdom: fines (imperii) propagare, extendere, (longius) proferre
    • to evacuate territory: (ex) finibus excedere
    • to put an end to one's life: vitae finem facere
    • such was the end of... (used of a violent death): talem vitae exitum (not finem) habuit (Nep. Eum. 13)
    • to finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a thing: finem facere alicuius rei
    • to finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a thing: finem imponere, afferre, constituere alicui rei
    • to finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a thing: ad finem aliquid adducere
    • to come to an end: finem habere
    • to cease speaking: finem dicendi facere
    • to impose fixed limitations: fines certos terminosque constituere
    • to put an end to war: belli finem facere, bellum finire

Pijin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English finish.

Particle[edit]

finis

  1. Tense marker for the past perfect tense