grad

From Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: grád, gråd, grąd, Grad, and град

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɡɹæd/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -æd

Noun[edit]

grad (plural grads)

  1. Abbreviation of graduate.
  2. Abbreviation of graduation.
  3. (geometry, trigonometry) Abbreviation of gradian.
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

grad (plural grads)

  1. Alternative letter-case form of Grad

Anagrams[edit]

Alemannic German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German gerade, gerat, from Old High German rado (fast, adverb), from rad (fast, adjective), from Proto-West Germanic *hrad (quick, hasty). Cognate with German gerade.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

grad

  1. now, at the moment
    • 1978, Rolf Lyssy & Christa Maerker, Die Schweizermacher, (transcript):
      Mir si grad am Esse, aber Si gönd gern mitesse, wen Si wend.
      We're eating at the moment, but you can gladly join us for dinner if you like.
  2. exactly

Chinese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From clipping of English graduate.

Pronunciation[edit]


Verb[edit]

grad

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) to graduate

Related terms[edit]

Danish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grad c (singular definite graden, plural indefinite grader)

  1. degree
    i allerhøjeste grad
    to the very highest degree
    til en sådan grad, at
    to such a degree that
  2. degree (180th of pi)
    Drej 90 grader i positiv omløbsretning (mod uret).
    Turn 90 degrees in the positive direction of circumambulation (counterclockwise).
  3. (mostly in compounds) academic degree
    Hun tog en grad i ægyptologi.
    She got a degree in egyptology.

Declension[edit]

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Contraction of gerade.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

grad

  1. (colloquial) Alternative form of gerade

Further reading[edit]

  • grad” in Duden online
  • grad” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch graad, from Middle Dutch graet, from Latin gradus.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈɡrat]
  • Hyphenation: grad

Noun[edit]

grad

  1. grade, degree, level
    Synonym: derajat
  2. dignity, prestige
    Synonym: martabat

Alternative forms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nicoline van der Sijs (2010) Nederlandse woorden wereldwijd[1], Den Haag: Sdu Uitgevers, →ISBN, →OCLC

Further reading[edit]

Luxembourgish[edit]

Adverb[edit]

grad

  1. just, just now
    Mäi Brudder ass grad heemkomm
    My brother has just come home

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin gradus.

Noun[edit]

grad m (definite singular graden, indefinite plural grader, definite plural gradene)

  1. degree (general)
  2. an academic degree
  3. degree (of angle)
  4. degree (of latitude or longitude)
  5. degree (of temperature)
  6. rank (e.g. military)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

Etymology[edit]

From Latin gradus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grad m (definite singular graden, indefinite plural gradar, definite plural gradane)
grad f (definite singular grada, indefinite plural grader, definite plural gradene)

  1. a degree (general)
  2. an academic degree
  3. degree (of angle)
  4. degree (of latitude or longitude)
  5. degree (of temperature)
  6. rank (e.g. military)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin gradus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grad m

  1. grade, step, order, degree, rank

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl
grad

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *gradъ.

Noun[edit]

grad m inan (related adjective gradowy)

  1. hail (balls of ice)
  2. (figurative) mass (large number or amount)
    Synonyms: deszcz, ulewa
    Hypernyms: masa, ogrom
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
nouns

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

grad m inan

  1. (geometry, trigonometry) gradian (unit of angle equal to 0.9 degrees, so that there are 100 gradians in a right angle)
Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • grad in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • grad in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French grade, ultimately from Latin gradus.

Noun[edit]

grad n (plural grade)

  1. degree (unit of measurement for temperature)

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *groddo, ultimately from the root of greas (to hasten).

Adjective[edit]

grad

  1. sudden, immediate, instant
  2. quick, rapid, swift, alert, agile

Usage notes[edit]

  • Often used adverbially, preceding and leniting the verbal noun:
    a' grad-amharc oirreglancing at her
    ghrad-leum e bhon chathairhe suddenly leapt from the chair

Derived terms[edit]

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *gȏrdъ, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *gárdas, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰórdʰos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grȃd m (Cyrillic spelling гра̑д)

  1. city, town
  2. fortress, castle
  3. downtown, city center
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *gradъ, from Proto-Indo-European *greh₃d-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grȁd m (Cyrillic spelling гра̏д)

  1. hail
Declension[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Latin gradus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grȃd m (Cyrillic spelling гра̑д)

  1. (mathematics) gradian
  2. degree (measuring unit in various systems; the more usual and general term is stȅpēn or stȗpanj)
Declension[edit]

Slavomolisano[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Serbo-Croatian grad (city, town, fortress). The extended meaning of ‘country’ is a semantic loan from Italian paese.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grad m

  1. village
  2. country

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • Walter Breu and Giovanni Piccoli (2000), Dizionario croato molisano di Acquaviva Collecroce: Dizionario plurilingue della lingua slava della minoranza di provenienza dalmata di Acquaviva Collecroce in Provincia di Campobasso (Parte grammaticale).
  • Breu, W., Mader Skender, M. B. & Piccoli, G. 2013. Oral texts in Molise Slavic (Italy): Acquaviva Collecroce. In Adamou, E., Breu, W., Drettas, G. & Scholze, L. (eds.). 2013. EuroSlav2010: Elektronische Datenbank bedrohter slavischer Varietäten in nichtslavophonen Ländern Europas – Base de données électronique de variétés slaves menacées dans des pays européens non slavophones. Konstanz: Universität / Paris: Lacito (Internet Publication).
  1. ^ Breu, Walter (2020), “Partitivity in Slavic-Romance language contact: The case of Molise Slavic in Italy” in Linguistics, volume 58, issue 3, page 840

Slovene[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *gȏrdъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grȃd m inan

  1. castle
  2. (obsolete) city
Declension[edit]
First masculine declension (hard o-stem, inanimate, -ov- infix), long mixed accent, ending -u in genitive singular
nom. sing. grȃd
gen. sing. gradȗ
singular dual plural
nominative
imenovȃlnik
grȃd gradȏva gradȏvi
genitive
rodȋlnik
gradȗ gradóv gradóv
dative
dajȃlnik
grȃdu, grȃdi gradȏvoma, gradȏvama gradȏvom, grȃdȏvam
accusative
tožȋlnik
grȃd gradȏva gradȏve
locative
mẹ̑stnik
grȃdu, grȃdi gradȏvih gradȏvih
instrumental
orọ̑dnik
grȃdom gradȏvoma, gradȏvama gradȏvi
(vocative)
(ogȏvorni imenovȃlnik)
grȃd gradȏva gradȏvi


First masculine declension (hard o-stem, inanimate, -ov- infix), fixed accent
nom. sing. grȃd
gen. sing. grȃda
singular dual plural
nominative
imenovȃlnik
grȃd gradȏva gradȏvi
genitive
rodȋlnik
grȃda gradóv gradóv
dative
dajȃlnik
grȃdu, grȃdi gradȏvoma, gradȏvama gradȏvom, grȃdȏvam
accusative
tožȋlnik
grȃd gradȏva gradȏve
locative
mẹ̑stnik
grȃdu, grȃdi gradȏvih gradȏvih
instrumental
orọ̑dnik
grȃdom gradȏvoma, gradȏvama gradȏvi
(vocative)
(ogȏvorni imenovȃlnik)
grȃd gradȏva gradȏvi


Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grȃd m inan

  1. (trigonometry) gradian
  2. (oenology) alcohol by volume


First masculine declension (hard o-stem, inanimate), fixed accent
nom. sing. grȃd
gen. sing. grȃda
singular dual plural
nominative
imenovȃlnik
grȃd grȃda grȃdi
genitive
rodȋlnik
grȃda grȃdov grȃdov
dative
dajȃlnik
grȃdu, grȃdi grȃdoma, grȃdama grȃdom, grȃdam
accusative
tožȋlnik
grȃd grȃda grȃde
locative
mẹ̑stnik
grȃdu, grȃdi grȃdih, grȃdah grȃdih, grȃdah
instrumental
orọ̑dnik
grȃdom grȃdoma, grȃdama grȃdi
(vocative)
(ogȏvorni imenovȃlnik)
grȃd grȃda grȃdi


Further reading[edit]

  • grad”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran
  • grad”, in Termania, Amebis
  • See also the general references

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin gradus

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grad c

  1. degree (extent)
    I vilken grad bör man fokusera på kebabsåsens krämighet?
    To what degree should you focus on the creaminess of the kebab sauce?
    tredje gradens brännskador
    third degree burns
    närkontakt av tredje graden
    close encounters of the third degree (idiomatic as opposed to "kind")
  2. (physics) degree (unit of temperature, in Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, etc.)
    – Hur många grader är det ute? – 240 grader Kelvin.
    – How many degrees is it outside? – 240 degrees Kelvin.
    • 1981, Ebba Grön (lyrics and music), “800ºC”, in Kärlek & uppror [Love & rebellion]:
      Vi fryser ihjäl. Det är så kallt. Stackars barn. Men snart blir det varmt. Ja, vi fryser ihjäl. Det är så kallt. Stackars barn. Men snart blir det varmt. Det blir 800 grader. Du kan lita på mig, du kan lita på mig. 800 grader. Du kan lita på mig, du kan lita på mig.
      We're freezing to death. It is so cold. Poor children. But soon it'll be warm. Yes, we're freezing to death. It is so cold. Poor children. But soon it'll be warm. It'll be 800 degrees. You can trust me, you can trust me. 800 degrees. You can trust me, you can trust me.
  3. (geometry) degree (angular unit)
    Vinkeln är 11 grader
    The angle is 11 degrees
  4. (geography) degree
    två grader öst
    two degrees east
  5. (algebra) degree
    x² - 4x + 4 = 0 är en andragradsekvation / en ekvation av andra graden / en ekvation av grad 2
    x² - 4x + 4 = 0 is a quadratic equation / a second-degree equation / an equation of degree 2
  6. grade, rank (especially in the military and academia)
    en officersgrad
    a grade of officer
    gradbeteckning
    rank insignia
    ha en doktorsgrad
    have a doctorate ("doctorate grade")
    stiga i graderna
    rise through the ranks (idiomatic, generally)
  7. (cooking) A measurement of acetic acid, corresponding to 6 cl of a 24% solution or 12 cl of a 12% solution.
    • 2012 June 12, “Inlagd löksill [Pickled onion herring]”, in My little bakery[2]:
      Lag: 3,5 dl vatten; 0,5 äggkopp salt; 1 grad ättika.
      Pickle: 3.5 dl water; 0.5 egg cup salt; 1 degree vinegar.
    • 2017 November 14, Minna Wallén-Widung, “9 oväntade sätt att använda ättika på [9 unexpected ways to use vinegar]”, in Allas[3]:
      [] späd 2 grader ättika med vatten till 0,5 liter.
      [] dilute 2 degrees vinegar with water to 0.5 liters.

Usage notes[edit]

An academic degree is usually an examen. Grad is more rare and closer to "rank," in a sense extended to (higher) academic degrees.

Declension[edit]

Declension of grad 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative grad graden grader graderna
Genitive grads gradens graders gradernas

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]