Appendix:English numerals
Contents
Naming rules (short scale)[edit]
English generally uses a decimal counting system for natural numbers. The names of the cardinal and ordinal numbers can be constructed from the below tables and a set of combining rules.
Each of the numbers specifically listed has a literal name that can be used on its own.
 To name numbers 21 through 99 that are not powers of 10, a power of ten is followed by a single digit number 19, and the value is the sum. For example, "42" is "forty two", which places a numeral "4" before a numeral "2" to indicate that the 4 represents "forty", or 4 times 10. "Zero" never combines with other numbers in the naming system, it is only pronounced in the name for 0.
 To name numbers 101 through 999 that are not powers of 100, the name of a digit 19 is followed by "hundred" (the individual values are multiplied together) to express the first digit, and the rules for smaller numbers are used for the remainder (the values of the hundreds part and the remainder are summed). For example, "642" is "six hundred forty two" and "919" is "nine hundred nineteen".
 For larger numbers, every group of additional three digits is written using the rules for numbers 1999 and pair with the name of a multiplier. In countries where the decimal mark is the period, commas are generally used to separate the groups of three digits, to aid in reading. (These commas are usually omitted in situations where the numbers would be manipulated in a calculation.) A group of three digits that is 000 is not pronounced. So for example: 2,001 is "two thousand one" and 1234 is "one thousand two hundred thirty four". Each additional number or numeral at the beginning of the string generally represents another power of ten. However, when writing numbers with words, certain multiples are placed at the end of the phrase.
 Due to the impractical length of numbers such as this it is uncommon to find numbers with more than a few nonzero digits in this form; more often they are simply written using Arabic numerals. Examples:
 375,000 has each numeral at the place in the string of numbers that represents its power of ten.* Threehundred seventyfive thousand begins with the words "threehundred" and "seventyfive", but modifies there meaning with the addition of the word "thousand". Compare threethousand sevenhundred fifty, for which each word representing a number is immediately modified by a word representing the power of ten for that number: "threethousand", "sevenhundred", "fifty".
 954,020,672: "nine hundred fifty four million twenty thousand six hundred seventy two" (uncommonly seen due to length)
 20,000,000: "twenty million" (commonly seen due to brevity)
Ordinal numbers[edit]
When constructing names for oridinal numbers, the ordinal variant given in the charts below is only used for the final word. For example:
 fifth
 twentieth
 twenty fourth (not twentieth fourth)
Ordinal numbers can also be written with Arabic numerals, in which case the last two letters of what would be the final word in the writtenout form is appended to the numerals. For example:
 1st
 2nd
 3rd
 4th
 20th
 21st
Systematic variations[edit]
Optionally, a hyphen can combine the lower part, as in "six hundred fortytwo". In British English, the word "and" is used to separate a multiplier from a number less than one hundred. Some speakers of North American English also insert "and", especially when the number is below 20. Examples:
 six hundred and two (instead of "six hundred two")
 six hundred and fortytwo
 two thousand and one
 one thousand two hundred and thirtyfour
 one million and one
 one million one thousand and five
As shown on the charts below, there are two systems for the names of multipliers, known as the "long system" and "short system", though the short system is generally now preferred in English, to avoid confusion.
In countries where the comma or middle dot is used as the decimal mark, spaces or periods are used for thousands separators. Some style guides prefer no digits separator for fourdigit numbers (10009999).
In less formal speech, the names for the numbers 1199 (except powers of ten) can be combined with "hundred" as an alternative to a longer systematic name using both "thousand" and "hundred". For example "eleven hundred" can replace "one thousand one hundred" but "twenty hundred and two" never replaces "two thousand and two" except poetically.
For large round numbers, familiar multipliers are sometimes repeated instead of using less familiar multipliers. For example, "one billion billion" instead of "one quintillion".
In British English, the phrases "thousand million", "thousand billion", and "thousand trillion" are sometimes used in place of "billion", "trillion", and "quadrillion", respectively.
Substitutions[edit]
The determiners a or the can gramattically substitute for "one", as in "a hundred" or "the first thousand"; and "a couple" can be used to mean two (though to some speakers "a couple" means "a few" which could perhaps range from two to five or higher).
The names of noncounting numbers  like in a code or a sequence or a naming scheme as for years or addresses  typically use a form of the "hundreds replace thousands" variation that also drops the "hundreds". Years and addresses are never written with commas as digit separators. For example, the year 1984 is pronounced "nineteen eighty four"; referring to that year with the systematic reading "nineteen hundred eighty four" sounds oldfashioned. Sequence numbers with zero digits have additional variations. More commonly than not, a zero in only the tens place is read as "oh" (as in the letter o), like "nineteen oh four". A zero in the hundreds place triggers use of the systematic name or the "hundreds replacement" variant. Examples:
 2001: "two thousand one" or rarely "twenty oh one"
 2015: "two thousand fifteen" or very commonly "twenty fifteen"
One complete variation for such noncounting numbers is to read individual digits. Informally, "oh" can once again substitude for zero in this scheme. For example, "1024" could be read "one zero two four" or "one oh two four".
Small numbers[edit]
Single digits[edit]
Cardinal number  Ordinal number  

0  zero  zeroth 
1  one  first 
2  two  second 
3  three  third 
4  four  fourth 
5  five  fifth 
6  six  sixth 
7  seven  seventh 
8  eight  eighth 
9  nine  ninth 
Irregular numbers: 1019[edit]
Cardinal number  Ordinal number  

10  ten  tenth 
11  eleven  eleventh 
12  twelve  twelfth 
13  thirteen  thirteenth 
14  fourteen  fourteenth 
15  fifteen  fifteenth 
16  sixteen  sixteenth 
17  seventeen  seventeenth 
18  eighteen  eighteenth 
19  nineteen  nineteenth 
Multiples of ten[edit]
Cardinal number  Ordinal number  

20  twenty  twentieth 
30  thirty  thirtieth 
40  forty  fortieth 
50  fifty  fiftieth 
60  sixty  sixtieth 
70  seventy  seventieth 
80  eighty  eightieth 
90  ninety  ninetieth 
Multiplying numbers[edit]
Short and long scale[edit]
Cardinal number  Ordinal number  

100  hundred  hundredth 
1000  thousand  thousandth 
10000  ten thousand  ten thousandth 
100000  hundred thousand  hundred thousandth 
1000000  million  millionth 
For higher multiplying terms, the ordinal suffix is always "th".
Name  Short scale (modern) 
Long scale (dated) 
Authorities  

AHD4  COD  OED2  OEDnew  RHD2  SOED3  W3  UM  
million  10^{6}  10^{6}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
milliard  10^{9}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  
billion  10^{9}  10^{12}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  * 
billiard  10^{15}  *  *  ✓  
trillion  10^{12}  10^{18}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  * 
trilliard  10^{21}  *  *  *  ✓  
quadrillion  10^{15}  10^{24}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
quintillion  10^{18}  10^{30}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
sextillion  10^{21}  10^{36}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
septillion  10^{24}  10^{42}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
octillion  10^{27}  10^{48}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
nonillion  10^{30}  10^{54}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
decillion  10^{33}  10^{60}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
undecillion  10^{36}  10^{66}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
duodecillion  10^{39}  10^{72}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
tredecillion  10^{42}  10^{78}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
quattuordecillion  10^{45}  10^{84}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
quindecillion (quinquadecillion)  10^{48}  10^{90}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
sexdecillion (sedecillion)  10^{51}  10^{96}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
septendecillion  10^{54}  10^{102}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
octodecillion  10^{57}  10^{108}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
novemdecillion (novendecillion)  10^{60}  10^{114}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
vigintillion  10^{63}  10^{120}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
googol  10^{100}  10^{100}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
centillion  10^{303}  10^{600}  ✓  ✓  ✓  *  
googolplex  10^{10100}  10^{10100}  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓  ✓ 

Usage notes[edit]
 An asterisk (*) denotes that it has not been verified whether the term so marked is or is not mentioned in the specified work of reference.
 The dictionary abbreviations are as follows :
 AHD4 — the American Heritage Dictionary, 4th edition, →ISBN. [1].
 COD — Cambridge Dictionaries Online, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
 OED2 — Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. →ISBN (and addendums since publication in 1989).
 OEDnew — Oxford English Dictionary, New Edition, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. [2] (subscription required), checked April 2007.
 RHD2 — The Random House Dictionary, 2nd Unabridged Edition, 1987, Random House.
 SOED3 — Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edition, 1993, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 W3 — Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged, 1993, MerriamWebster.
 UM — How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measures, published by Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, online, accessed 1 April 2007.
 milliard[1] a unit of quantity equal to 10^{9}, which is what Americans call a billion.
 billiard unit of quantity equal to 10^{15}, which is one quadrillion in American terminology or 1000 billion in traditional British terminology. The name is coined to parallel milliard, which has long been a name for 1000 million.
 trilliard a unit of quantity equal to 10^{21}, which is one sextillion in American terminology or 1000 trillion in traditional British terminology. The name is coined to parallel milliard, which has long been a name for 1000 million.
South Asian numbering system[edit]
In South Asian varieties of English, the traditional South Asian numbering system is commonly used instead of or alongside the short and long scale. This groups higher digits in pairs instead of triplets.
South Asian English  Indian figure  Power notation  Arabic figure  Short scale English 

one  1  10^{0}  1  one 
ten  10  10^{1}  10  ten 
one hundred  100  10^{2}  100  one hundred 
one thousand  1,000  10^{3}  1,000  one thousand 
ten thousand  10,000  10^{4}  10,000  ten thousand 
one lakh (also lac)  1,00,000  10^{5}  100,000  one hundred thousand 
ten lakh  10,00,000  10^{6}  1,000,000  one million 
one crore  1,00,00,000  10^{7}  10,000,000  ten million 
ten crore  10,00,00,000  10^{8}  100,000,000  one hundred million 
one arab / one hundred crore  1,00,00,00,000  10^{9}  1,000,000,000  one billion 
one thousand crore / ten arab  10,00,00,00,000  10^{10}  10,000,000,000  ten billion 
ten thousand crore / one kharab / one hundred arab  1,00,00,00,00,000  10^{11}  100,000,000,000  one hundred billion 
one lakh crore / ten kharab / one thousand arab  10,00,00,00,00,000  10^{12}  1,000,000,000,000  one trillion 
ten lakh crore / one neel / one hundred kharab / ten thousand arab  1,00,00,00,00,00,000  10^{13}  10,000,000,000,000  ten trillion 
one crore crore / ten neel  10,00,00,00,00,00,000  10^{14}  100,000,000,000,000  one hundred trillion 
one padm / one hundred neel / ten crore crore  1,00,00,00,00,00,00,000  10^{15}  1,000,000,000,000,000  one quadrillion 
ten padm / one hundred crore crore  10,00,00,00,00,00,00,000  10^{16}  10,000,000,000,000,000  ten quadrillion 
one shankh / one hundred padm / one thousand crore crore / one lakh lakh crore  1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000  10^{17}  100,000,000,000,000,000  one hundred quadrillion 
General rules for very large numbers (short and long scale)[edit]
Depending on whether you are using the old European system of powers of a million, or the more current system of powers of a thousand, then the name of a number can be created by extracting the name of the power from this table and then adding illion to the end. This method should be treated with caution and it is common to find slight spelling variations, normally to aid with the pronunciation of the resulting word. In most situations it is preferable to write numbers such as these using standard form instead of words.^{[1]}
Units  Tens  Hundreds  

1  un  deci  centi 
2  duo  viginti  ducenti 
3  tre  triginta  trecenti 
4  quattor  quadraginta  quadringenti 
5  quinqua  quinquaginta  quingenti 
6  sex  sexaginta  sescenti 
7  septe  septuaginta  septigenti 
8  octo  octoginta  octingenti 
9  novem  nonaginta  nongenti 
For an example of how this might work consider . This can be written as using the modern system. This is then interpreted as ducentiquinquagintaquattorillion using the above table. The hyphens are normally removed leaving one ducentiquinquagintaquattorillion. In the older system it would be written as and interpreted as one centivigintiseptillion, noting that the ‘e’ from ‘septe’ has been ellided.
Groups and multiplying words[edit]
Coefficient  Noun  Result 

1  single  singlet 
2  double  doublet twin 
3  triple  triplet 
4  quadruple  quadruplet 
5  quintuple pentuple 
quintuplet pentuplet 
6  sextuple hextuple 
sextuplet hextuplet 
7  septuple heptuple 
septuplet heptuplet 
8  octuple  octuplet 
9  nonuple  nonuplet 
10  decuple  decuplet 
11  undecuple hendecuple 
undecuplet hendecuplet 
12  duodecuple  duodecuplet 
13  tredecuple  tredecuplet 
100  centuple  centuplet 
many  multiple  multiplet 
Greekbased prefixes[edit]
Greekbased prefixes:
 1: mono
 2: di
 3: tri
 4: tetra
 5: penta
 6: hexa
 7: hepta
 8: octa
 9: ennea
 10: deca
 12: dodeca
 20: icosa
 30: triacontra
 100: hecta
Historical numerals[edit]
Numbers from a base12 number system, base20 numbers, and other historical numbers.
Duodecimal (base 12)[edit]
Number  Word  Mathematical formula 
6  half dozen  ½ × 12 
12  dozen  12 
13  baker's dozen  12 + 1 
13  long dozen  12 + 1 
72  half gross  ½ × (12 × 12) 
120  short gross  10 × 12 
120  small gross  10 × 12 
120  great hundred  12 × 10 
120  long hundred  12 × 10 
144  gross  12 × 12 
156  long gross  (12 + 1) × 12 
1200  long thousand  12 × 100 
1728  great gross  12 × 12 × 12 
Vigesimal (base 20)[edit]
Number  Word  Mathematical formula 
20  score  20 
40  twoscore  2 × 20 
60  threescore  3 × 20 
80  fourscore  4 × 20 
100  fivescore  5 × 20 
120  sixscore  6 × 20 
140  sevenscore  7 × 20 
160  eightscore  8 × 20 
180  ninescore  9 × 20 
200  tenscore  10 × 20 
See also[edit]
 Appendix:Roman numerals
 Category:English numbers
 Category:English cardinal numbers
 Category:English ordinal numbers