Iran

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See also: Irán, Írán, İran, irán, and Îran

English[edit]

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Etymology[edit]

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From Persian ایران (Īrān), from Middle Persian 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭 (ērān, (land) of the Iranians). See ērān for word formation, further etymology and cognates.

The name of the political entity is a 3rd-century development that derives from the indigenous ethno-linguistic name of the Iranian peoples,[1] i.e. the great variety of Iranian tribes that spoke an Iranian language.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran

  1. (common) a country in the Middle East. Its capital is Tehran. Present-day official name: Islamic Republic of Iran.
    • 2005, Massoume Price, ed., Iran's Diverse Peoples, ABC-Clio, p. xiii
      Iran is a vast and ancient country in a strategic location in the Middle East. It borders Russia, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, the Gulf of Oman, and the Persian Gulf
    • ca. 1675, Jean Chardin (Sir John Chardin), Travels in Persia, 1673-1677, fasc. reprint 1988, Dover, p. 126.
      The Persians, in naming their country, make use of one word, which they indifferently pronounce Iroun, and Iran.
  2. (literary, technical) regions inhabited by Iranian peoples, i.e. (A) Western Iranian languages/peoples – Parthian(s) proper, Persiann(s) proper, Mede(s), Kurd(s), etc. – of the present-day country, and (B) the Eastern Iranian languages/peoples – Bactrian(s), Chorasmian(s), Khotanese, Sogdian(s), Baluchi(s), Pashtun(s) etc. – of Central Asia, or Ossetian(s) etc. of the Caucasus.
    • 1990, Hubert Darke, "Cambridge History of Iran" in Encyclopedia Iranica, vol. 4, p. 724.
      "[The] Cambridge History of Iran [is] a survey of the history and historical geography of the land which is present-day Iran, as well as other territories inhabited by peoples of Iranian descent
    • 1985, J. M. Cooke, "The Rise of the Achaemenids" in Cambridge Historiy of Iran, vol. 2, p. 290
      [W]e may surmise that there was a strong sense of Iranian unity lending solidarity to the eastern half of the empire. It is only in the generations after Alexander, in Eudemus and in Eratosthenes (ap. Strabo), that we find mention of the concept of a greater nation of Iran (Arianē) stretching from the Zagros to the Indus; but the sense of unity must have been there, for Herodotus tells us that the Medes were formerly called Arioi, and Darius I (followed by Xerxes) in his inscriptions proclaims himself an Iranian (Ariya) by race - he speaks of himself in ascending order as an Achaemenid, a Persian and an Iranian (Naqsh-i Rustam).
    • 1898, A. V. W. Jackson, Zoroaster: The Prophet of Ancient Iran, Macmillan, p. 10
      Zoroaster of Iran. — Zoroaster, it is believed, sprang up in the seventh century before the Christian era, somewhere in the land between the Indus and the Tigris.
    • 1882, James Darmesteter, The Zend-Avesta, vol. 1 (SBE, vol. 31), Oxford UP, p. 7, xxviii
      Kavi means a king, but it is particularly used of the kings belonging to the second and most celebrated of the two mythical dynasties of Iran.
      One certain fact is the occurrence of geographical names [Bactria, Sogdiana, etc] in Vendidad I, which are obviously intended to describe the earliest homes of the Iranian races whose lore was the Avesta.
    • 1909, John Huston Finley (ed.), "Iran" in Nelson's Perpetual Loose-leaf Encyclopaedia, vol. 6, p. 479
      Iran. in early times, the name applied to the great Asiatic plateau which comprised the entire region from the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea, and Russian Turkestan on the north to the Tigris, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea on the west and south, and extending to the Indus on the east, likewise comprising the modern Afghanistan and the territory to the north of it as far as the Jaxartes River.
Note: The distinction is between state and nation, the latter reflects indigenous usage of the term.

Synonyms[edit]

  • Persia (archaic exogenous name for the country)

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MacKenzie, David Niel (1998). "Ērān, Ērānšahr". Encyclopedia Iranica, vol. 8. Costa Mesa: Mazda, p. 534.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]

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Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran

  1. Iran

Breton[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran ?

  1. Iran

Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran m

  1. Iran

Derived terms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]


Danish[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran

  1. Iran

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran n

  1. Iran

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Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran

  1. Iran

Declension[edit]

Singular
Indefinite
Nominative Iran
Accusative Iran
Dative Irani
Genitive Irans

Related terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia fi

Proper noun[edit]

Iran

  1. Iran

Declension[edit]

Inflection of Iran (Kotus type 6/paperi, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative Iran
accusative nom.? Iran
gen. Iranin
genitive Iranin
partitive Irania
inessive Iranissa
elative Iranista
illative Iraniin
adessive Iranilla
ablative Iranilta
allative Iranilleˣ
essive Iranina
translative Iraniksi
instructive
abessive Iranitta
comitative

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran m

  1. Iran

Related terms[edit]

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German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran m (genitive Irans or Iran)

  1. Iran

Usage notes[edit]

  • The word is sometimes used without a definite article as in English: Iran, in Iran. In this case, the genitive is always Irans, for example Irans Hauptstadt – "Iran's capital".
  • More commonly, however, the definite article is used with the name: der Iran, im Iran. In this case, the genitive usually is des Iran, although des Irans is also correct: die Hauptstadt des Iran(s) – "the capital of Iran".

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Indonesian[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran

  1. Iran

Interlingua[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran

  1. Iran

Italian[edit]

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia it

Proper noun[edit]

Iran m

  1. Iran

Related terms[edit]

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Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

Iran

  1. rōmaji reading of イラン

Norwegian[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran

  1. Iran

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Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran m

  1. Iran

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Iran n

  1. Iran

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia sh

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ǐraːn/
  • Hyphenation: I‧ran

Proper noun[edit]

Ìrān m (Cyrillic spelling Ѝра̄н)

  1. Iran

Declension[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Swedish Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia sv

Proper noun[edit]

Iran n

  1. Iran

Derived terms[edit]