Israel

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English[edit]

Flag of the State of Israel
Location map of the State of Israel, with disputed territories shown in light green

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English Israel, from Old English, borrowed from Latin Israel, from Ancient Greek Ἰσραήλ (Israḗl), from Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל (yisra'él, Israel).[1][2] In the Bible, it is said to be from the name יִשְׂרֶה אֵל (yisré 'él) given to Jacob in Genesis 32:29, after which his descendants came to be known as Israelites and their land as the "kingdom/land of Israel". The personal name, already attested in Eblaite 𒅖𒊏𒅋 (iš-ra-il) and Ugaritic 𐎊𐎌𐎗𐎛𐎍 (yšrỉl),[3] has been variously translated as "he wrestles with God", "he prevails with God",[4] or "God rules" (possibly from the same root ש־ר־ה/ש־ר־ר as שָׂרָה (Sarah)).[5]

Line 27 of the Merneptah Stele (from about 1200 B.C.E.) is thought to contain the earliest attestation of the name Israel in any language, Egyptian ysrjꜣr.

iiz
Z1s Z1s
r
iAr
Z1 T14
A1 B1
Z2

Doublet of Yisroel.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • enPR: ĭzʹrā-əl, ĭzʹrē-əl; IPA(key): /ˈɪz.ɹeɪ.əl/, /ˈɪz.ɹi.əl/
    (formal and posh RP) enPR: ĭzʹrā-ĕl; IPA(key): /ˈɪz.ɹeɪ.ɛl/
    (in singing also) enPR: ĭzʹrī-ĕl; IPA(key): /ˈɪz.ɹaɪ.ɛl/
    (certain Carolina accents) IPA(key): /ˈɪz.ɹɛəl/
  • (file)

Proper noun[edit]

Israel (plural Israels)

  1. A modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. Official name: State of Israel.
  2. (biblical) A Biblical region of Western Asia roughly coextensive with the modern State of Israel, known in the Bible as the Land of Israel and considered the ancestral homeland of the Jewish people.
  3. (historical) An ancient kingdom in Western Asia, roughly coextensive with the modern State of Israel and the Land of Israel.
  4. (historical) An ancient kingdom that occupied the northern part of the Land of Israel and modern State of Israel, as distinct from Judah.
  5. (historical, now proscribed or offensive) The Jews, taken collectively.
  6. A male given name from Hebrew,
    1. Another name for Jacob, notably after Genesis 32:28 and in later references.
  7. A surname.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (region): The use of Israel to refer to the region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea has been, since the latter half of the 20th century, sometimes seen as politically or emotionally charged; indeed, this is true of all terms for this region.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Israel”, in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
  2. ^ Israel”, in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1996–present.
  3. ^ Michael G. Hasel, Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant (Brill, 1998)
  4. ^ James P. Boyd, Bible dictionary (Ottenheimer Publishers, 1958)
  5. ^ Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 18–50 (NICOT, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995)

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Afrikaans[edit]

Afrikaans Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia af

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Dutch Israël, from Middle Dutch israel, from Old Dutch israel, from Latin Isrāēl, from Ancient Greek Ἰσρᾱήλ (Isrāḗl), from Biblical Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל.

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Related terms[edit]

Asturian[edit]

Asturian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ast

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /israˈel/, [iz.raˈel]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel m

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Related terms[edit]

Catalan[edit]

Catalan Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ca

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel m

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)
  2. a male given name, equivalent to English Israel

Related terms[edit]

Central Huasteca Nahuatl[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Central Nahuatl[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Danish[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Finnish[edit]

Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia fi

Etymology[edit]

From Biblical Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל (yisra'él).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈisrɑel/, [ˈis̠rɑ̝e̞l]
  • Rhymes: -isrɑel
  • Syllabification(key): Is‧ra‧el

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of Israel (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative Israel
genitive Israelin
partitive Israelia
illative Israeliin
singular plural
nominative Israel
accusative nom. Israel
gen. Israelin
genitive Israelin
partitive Israelia
inessive Israelissa
elative Israelista
illative Israeliin
adessive Israelilla
ablative Israelilta
allative Israelille
essive Israelina
translative Israeliksi
abessive Israelitta
instructive
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of Israel (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative Israelini
accusative nom. Israelini
gen. Israelini
genitive Israelini
partitive Israeliani
inessive Israelissani
elative Israelistani
illative Israeliini
adessive Israelillani
ablative Israeliltani
allative Israelilleni
essive Israelinani
translative Israelikseni
abessive Israelittani
instructive
comitative
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative Israelisi
accusative nom. Israelisi
gen. Israelisi
genitive Israelisi
partitive Israeliasi
inessive Israelissasi
elative Israelistasi
illative Israeliisi
adessive Israelillasi
ablative Israeliltasi
allative Israelillesi
essive Israelinasi
translative Israeliksesi
abessive Israelittasi
instructive
comitative
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative Israelimme
accusative nom. Israelimme
gen. Israelimme
genitive Israelimme
partitive Israeliamme
inessive Israelissamme
elative Israelistamme
illative Israeliimme
adessive Israelillamme
ablative Israeliltamme
allative Israelillemme
essive Israelinamme
translative Israeliksemme
abessive Israelittamme
instructive
comitative
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative Israelinne
accusative nom. Israelinne
gen. Israelinne
genitive Israelinne
partitive Israelianne
inessive Israelissanne
elative Israelistanne
illative Israeliinne
adessive Israelillanne
ablative Israeliltanne
allative Israelillenne
essive Israelinanne
translative Israeliksenne
abessive Israelittanne
instructive
comitative
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative Israelinsa
accusative nom. Israelinsa
gen. Israelinsa
genitive Israelinsa
partitive Israeliaan
Israeliansa
inessive Israelissaan
Israelissansa
elative Israelistaan
Israelistansa
illative Israeliinsa
adessive Israelillaan
Israelillansa
ablative Israeliltaan
Israeliltansa
allative Israelilleen
Israelillensa
essive Israelinaan
Israelinansa
translative Israelikseen
Israeliksensa
abessive Israelittaan
Israelittansa
instructive
comitative

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Latin Israel, Ancient Greek Ἰσραήλ (Israḗl)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈiːsʁaeːl]
  • IPA(key): [ˈɪsʁaeːl] (less common)
  • (file)
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: Is‧ra‧el

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. (biblical) Israel, another name of the patriarch Jacob
    • 1912, Lutherbibel 1912, 1.Mose 32, 29 (Luther Bible 1912, Genesis 32:29):
      Er sprach: Du sollst nicht mehr Jakob heißen, sondern Israel; denn du hast mit Gott und mit Menschen gekämpft und bist obgelegen.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Proper noun[edit]

Israel n (proper noun, genitive Israels or (optionally with an article) Israel)

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean; official name: Staat Israel)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Israel” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • Israel” in Duden online

Iban[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English Israel.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Adjective[edit]

Israel

  1. Israeli

Indonesian[edit]

Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch Israël, from Middle Dutch israel, from Old Dutch israel, from Latin Isrāēl, from Ancient Greek Ἰσρᾱήλ (Isrāḗl), from Biblical Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל. Doublet of Israil.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ɪsˈrael]
  • Hyphenation: Is‧ra‧él

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel:
    1. A modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean
    2. (biblical) A Biblical region of Western Asia roughly coextensive with the modern State of Israel, known in the Bible as the Land of Israel and considered the ancestral homeland of the Jewish people
    3. (biblical, biblical, historical) An ancient kingdom in Western Asia, roughly coextensive with the modern State of Israel and the Land of Israel
    4. (biblical, , biblical, , historical, biblical, historical) An ancient kingdom that occupied the northern part of the Land of Israel and modern State of Israel, as distinct from Judah
    5. The Jews, taken collectively.
      Synonym: Yahudi

Further reading[edit]

Interlingua[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. (all senses) Israel

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Koine Greek Ἰσρᾱήλ (Isrāḗl), from Biblical Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל (Yiśrāʾēl). The spelling Istrāhēl, from Ἰστρᾱήλ (Istrāḗl), was predominant until the dissemination of Jerome’s Vulgate (5th century CE), which popularized Isrāhēl. The h was gradually lost thereafter.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Isrāēl m sg (variously declined, genitive Isrāēl or Isrāēlis); indeclinable, third declension

  1. (Late Latin, Ecclesiastical Latin) Israel, another name of the patriarch Jacob
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Genesis.32.28:
      At ille: Nequaquam, inquit, Iacob appellabitur nomen tuum, sed Israhel: quoniam si contra Deum fortis fuisti quanto magis contra homines praevalebis.
  2. (New Latin) Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Declension[edit]

Indeclinable noun or third-declension noun, singular only.

Case Singular
Nominative Isrāēl
Genitive Isrāēl
Isrāēlis
Dative Isrāēl
Isrāēlī
Accusative Isrāēl
Isrāēlem
Ablative Isrāēl
Isrāēle
Vocative Isrāēl

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Souter, Alexander (1949), “Istrahēl”, in A Glossary of Later Latin to 600 A.D., 1st edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, published 1957, page 222

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

Proper noun[edit]

Israel

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Plautdietsch[edit]

Noun[edit]

Israel n

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from Latin Israel, from Ancient Greek Ἰσραήλ (Israḗl), from Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל (yisra'él, Israel). Displaced Old Galician-Portuguese Irrael.

Pronunciation[edit]

 
 
  • (Portugal) IPA(key): /iʒ.ʁɐˈɛl/ [iʒ.ʁɐˈɛɫ]
    • (Southern Portugal) IPA(key): /iʒ.ʁɐˈɛ.li/

  • Hyphenation: Is‧ra‧el

Proper noun[edit]

Israel m

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)
  2. (biblical) Israel (A Biblical region of Western Asia roughly coextensive with the modern State of Israel, known in the Bible as the Land of Israel and considered the ancestral homeland of the Jewish people)
  3. a male given name, equivalent to English Israel

Usage notes[edit]

Israel is never indicated by an article; see usage notes for Portugal.

Derived terms[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Romanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ro

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Hebrew ישראל.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel n

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Declension[edit]

Spanish[edit]

Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia es

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /israˈel/ [iz.raˈel]
  • Rhymes: -el
  • Syllabification: Is‧ra‧el

Proper noun[edit]

Israel m

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)
  2. Jacob
    • 1602, Casiodoro de Reina, La Santa Biblia, rev., Genesis 32:28
      Y él dijo: No se dirá más tu nombre Jacob, sino Israel: porque has peleado con Dios y con los hombres, y has vencido.
      And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed.
      (KJV)
  3. a male given name from Hebrew, equivalent to English Israel

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Swedish[edit]

Swedish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sv

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel n (genitive Israels)

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Tagalog[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Spanish Israel (Israel), from Latin Israel, from Ancient Greek Ἰσραήλ (Israḗl), from Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל (yisra'él, Israel).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: Is‧ra‧el
  • IPA(key): /ʔisɾaˈʔel/, [ʔɪs.ɾɐˈʔɛl]

Proper noun[edit]

Israél (Baybayin spelling ᜁᜐ᜔ᜇᜁᜎ᜔)

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)
  2. (biblical) (biblical) Israel (A Biblical region of Western Asia roughly coextensive with the modern State of Israel, known in the Bible as the Land of Israel and considered the ancestral homeland of the Jewish people)
  3. a male given name, equivalent to English Israel

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Israel”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Welsh[edit]

Welsh Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia cy

Etymology[edit]

Latin Israel, from Koine Greek Ἰσρᾱήλ (Isrāḗl), from Biblical Hebrew יִשְׂרָאֵל (Yiśrāʾēl).

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Israel f

  1. Israel (a modern country in Western Asia, in the Middle East, at the eastern shore of the Mediterranean)

Coordinate terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
Israel unchanged unchanged Hisrael
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.