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U+849C, 蒜
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-849C

[U+849B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+849D]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 140 +10, 16 strokes, cangjie input 廿一火火 (TMFF), four-corner 44991, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1048, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31562
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1510, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3259, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+849C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sloːns
*sloːns

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sloːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *sloːns).

Etymology[edit]

Matisoff considers this to be derived from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *swa-n (garlic), but more likely this may be a plant imported from the Western Regions in the QinHan era. The relatively late attestation and the earlier form of 卵蒜 (luǎnsuàn) attest to the latter theory.

Compare Sanskrit शुन (laśuna), Pali lasuṇa, lasuna. The Old Chinese reconstruction was revised to a *-or rhyme in the Baxter–Sagart system, akin to its homophone (“to calculate”). Hence compare Persian سیر (sir, garlic), Khotanese sārmā- (the plant Basella cordifolia or B. lucida or B. rubra), Hungarian sárma (Ornithogalum sp.), as well as (controversial) Proto-Altaic *sera (a kind of garlic) (Turkish sarımsak, Mongolian саримс (sarims)).

Either way this word is cognate with the second syllable of Burmese ကြက်သွန် (krakswan, onion), ကြက်သွန်ဖြူ (krakswanhpru, garlic).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • soàn - literary;
  • sǹg - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (62)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/suɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/sʷɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/suɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/swanH/
Li
Rong
/suɑnH/
Wang
Li
/suɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/suɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
suàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
suàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ swanH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]ˤor-s/
English garlic

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12133
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sloːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. garlic

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
にんにく
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Said to be from 忍辱.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana にんにく, katakana ニンニク, rōmaji ninniku)

  1. garlic
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as ニンニク.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひる, rōmaji hiru)

  1. allium
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Kikai[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana ふぃる, romaji firu)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ふぃる, romaji firu)

  1. garlic

References[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(san) (hangeul , revised san, McCune-Reischauer san, Yale san)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Okinawan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Attested in the 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”) as ひる.[1]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana ひる, romaji hiru)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひる, romaji hiru)

  1. garlic

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1896: 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”). In Japanese. http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/992016/77

Yoron[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana ぴる, romaji piru)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ぴる, romaji piru)

  1. garlic

References[edit]