poll

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See also: Poll, póll, põll, and Pöll

English[edit]

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 Poll on Wikipedia

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English pol, polle ("scalp, pate"), probably from or else cognate with Middle Dutch pol, pōle, polle (top, summit; head),[1] from Proto-Germanic *pullaz (round object, head, top), from Proto-Indo-European *bolno-, *bōwl- (orb, round object, bubble), from Proto-Indo-European *bew- (to blow, swell).

Akin to Scots pow (head, crown, skalp, skull), Saterland Frisian pol (round, full, brimming), Low German polle (head, tree-top, bulb), Danish puld (crown of a hat), Swedish dialectal pull (head). Meaning "collection of votes" is first recorded 1625, from notion of "counting heads".

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

poll (plural polls)

  1. A survey of people, usually statistically analyzed to gauge wider public opinion.
    Synonyms: election, survey
  2. A formal election.
    The student council had a poll to see what people want served in the cafeteria.
  3. A polling place (usually as plural, polling places)
    The polls close at 8 p.m.
  4. The result of the voting, the total number of votes recorded.
  5. (now rare outside veterinary contexts) The head, particularly the scalp or pate upon which hair (normally) grows.
    Synonym: scalp
    • 1883, Robert Louis Stevenson, Treasure Island
      [] the doctor, as if to hear better, had taken off his powdered wig, and sat there, looking very strange indeed with his own close-cropped black poll.
    • 1908, O. Henry, A Tempered Wind
      And you might perceive the president and general manager, Mr. R. G. Atterbury, with his priceless polished poll, busy in the main office room dictating letters..
  6. (in extended senses of the above) A mass of people, a mob or muster, considered as a head count.
  7. The broad or butt end of an axe or a hammer.
  8. The pollard or European chub, a kind of fish.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

poll (third-person singular simple present polls, present participle polling, simple past and past participle polled)

  1. (transitive) To take, record the votes of (an electorate).
  2. (transitive) To solicit mock votes from (a person or group).
  3. (intransitive) To vote at an election.
    • 1844, Benjamin Disraeli, Coningsby
      it was known that the leading members of Mr. Rigby's Committee had polled
  4. To register or deposit, as a vote; to elicit or call forth, as votes or voters.
    He polled a hundred votes more than his opponent.
    • 1717, Thomas Tickell, An Epistle from a Lady in England to a Gentleman at Avignon
      poll for points of faith his trusty vote
  5. To cut off; to remove by clipping, shearing, etc.; to mow or crop.
    to poll the hair; to poll wool; to poll grass
  6. (transitive) To cut the hair of (a creature).
  7. (transitive) To remove the horns of (an animal).
  8. To remove the top or end of; to clip; to lop.
    to poll a tree
  9. (transitive, computing, communication) To (repeatedly) request the status of something (such as a computer or printer on a network).
    The network hub polled the department's computers to determine which ones could still respond.
  10. (intransitive, with adverb) To be judged in a poll.
    • 2008, Joanne McEvoy, The politics of Northern Ireland (page 171)
      The election was a resounding defeat for Robert McCartney who polled badly in the six constituencies he contested and even lost his own Assembly seat in North Down.
  11. (obsolete) To extort from; to plunder; to strip.
  12. To impose a tax upon.
  13. To pay as one's personal tax.
  14. To enter, as polls or persons, in a list or register; to enroll, especially for purposes of taxation; to enumerate one by one.
  15. (law) To cut or shave smooth or even; to cut in a straight line without indentation[2]
    a polled deed
Translations[edit]

Adjective[edit]

poll

  1. (of kinds of livestock which typically have horns) Bred without horns, and thus hornless.
    Poll Hereford
    Red Poll cows
    • 1757, The monthly review, or, literary journal, volume 17, page 416:
      Sheep, that is, the Horned sort, and those without Horns, called Poll Sheep [...]
    • 1960, Frank O'Loghlen, Frank H. Johnston, Cattle country: an illustrated survey of the Australian beef cattle industry, a complete directory of the studs, page 85:
      About 15000 cattle, comprising 10000 Hereford and Poll Hereford, 4000 Aberdeen Angus and 1000 Shorthorn and Poll Shorthorn, are grazed [...]
    • 1970, The Pastoral review, volume 80, page 457:
      Otherwise, both horned and poll sheep continue to be bred from an inner stud.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "poll, n.1" Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2006.
  2. ^ 1859, Alexander Mansfield, Law Dictionary

Etymology 2[edit]

Perhaps a shortening of Polly, a common name for pet parrots.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

poll (plural polls)

  1. A pet parrot.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Ancient Greek πολλοί (polloí, the many, the masses)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

poll (plural polls)

  1. (UK, dated, Cambridge University) One who does not try for honors at university, but is content to take a degree merely; a passman.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, Springfield, Massachusetts, G.&C. Merriam Co., 1967

Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Occitan, from Latin pullus, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *polH- (animal young). Compare Occitan pol.

Noun[edit]

poll m (plural polls)

  1. chicken (bird)
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Occitan, from Late Latin peduclus < peduculus, variant of Latin pēdīculus, from pēdis, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *pesd-.

Noun[edit]

poll m (plural polls)

  1. louse (insect)
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

poll

  1. first-person singular present indicative of pollen
  2. imperative of pollen

German[edit]

Verb[edit]

poll

  1. singular imperative of pollen
  2. (colloquial) first-person singular present of pollen

Icelandic[edit]

Noun[edit]

poll

  1. indefinite accusative singular of pollur

Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Irish poll (hole), from Old English pōl (compare English pool).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

poll m (genitive singular poill, nominative plural poill)

  1. hole
    1. storage pit; disposal pit; extraction pit
    2. pool, puddle; pond, sea
    3. burrow, lair
    4. dark, mean place (of prison)
    5. shaft, vent hole
    6. aperture
    7. (anatomy) orifice, cavity
    8. perforation
    9. (figuratively) leak
    10. pothole

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

poll (present analytic pollann, future analytic pollfaidh, verbal noun polladh, past participle pollta)

  1. (transitive, intransitive) hole; puncture, pierce, bore, perforate (make a hole in)

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
poll pholl bpoll
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Finck, F. N. (1899), Die araner mundart, Marburg: Elwert’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, vol. II, p. 209.
  2. ^ Tomás de Bhaldraithe, 1975, The Irish of Cois Fhairrge, Co. Galway: A Phonetic Study, Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, section 215.

Further reading[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

poll

  1. A head, particularly the scalp or pate upon which the hair (normally) grows

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse pollr.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

poll m (definite singular pollen, indefinite plural pollar, definite plural pollane)

  1. a small branch of a fjord, often with a narrow inlet

Further reading[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly borrowed from Old English pōl (pool).[1] Or, from Late Latin *padulus, metathesis of paludis, palus (marsh, swamp, bog).[2] See also Welsh pwll (pool swamp), Irish poll, Middle Breton poull.

Noun[edit]

poll m (genitive singular puill, plural puill)

  1. mud, mire
  2. pond, pool, bog

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Scottish Gaelic mutation
Radical Lenition
poll pholl
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “pwll”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  2. ^ MacBain, Alexander; Mackay, Eneas (1911), “poll”, in An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Stirling, →ISBN, page poll