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See also: and
U+7814, 研
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7814

[U+7813]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7815]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
研-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 112, +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 一口一廿 (MRMT), four-corner 11640, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (Original form of 研)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 828, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24080
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1243, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2418, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+7814

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
研-seal.svg 研-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kŋeː
*kŋeː
*kŋeː, *ŋ̊ʰeːn
羿 *ŋeːs
*ŋ̊ʰaːn
*ŋaːn, *ŋ̊ʰeːn
*ŋreːn, *tŋ̊ʰeːn
*ŋeːn
*kŋeːn
*kŋeːn, *ŋeːn, *ŋ̊ʰreːŋ, *ŋreːɡ
*kŋeːn, *ŋeːns
*kŋeːn, *ŋ̊ʰeːn
*kŋeːnʔ, *ŋeːn, *ŋeːns
*ŋ̊ʰeːn, *ŋ̊ʰeːns
*ŋ̊ʰeːn
*ŋɡeːn, *ŋeːns
*ŋeːn
*hŋeːn
*ɡeːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋɡeːn, *ŋeːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kŋeːn).

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • jin4 - literary;
  • ngaan4 - vernacular (“to grind”).
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • ngiēng - vernacular;
    • ngiĕng - literary (used in 研究).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • gián - literary;
    • géng/nguí/gán/ngái - vernacular.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: ngiêng2 / ngiang2 / ngiêng5 / ngiang5 / ngoin2 / ngain2
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: ngiéng / ngiáng / ngiêng / ngiâng / ngóiⁿ / ngáiⁿ
      • IPA (key): /ŋieŋ⁵²/, /ŋiaŋ⁵²/, /ŋieŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋiaŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋõĩ⁵²/, /ŋãĩ⁵²/
    Note:
    • ngiêng2/ngiang2, ngiêng5/ngiang5 - literary;
    • ngoin2/ngain2 - vernacular.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
    Harbin /ian²⁴/
    Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /iã⁴²/
    Qingdao /iã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
    Xi'an /iã²⁴/
    Xining /iã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /niɛn⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ȵian⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /nian⁵⁵/
    Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ien²⁴/
    Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵi⁵³/
    Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ne³⁵/
    Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ³³/
    Xiangtan /ȵiẽ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋan⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /ŋien²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
    Nanning /in²¹/
    Hong Kong /jin²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gian³⁵/
    /giŋ⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋieŋ³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋaiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiaŋ⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋin²³/ ~究
    /ŋai²¹³/ ~碎

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋenH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋenH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɛnH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɛnH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋenH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋienH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋienH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ˁe[r]/
    English grind; examine

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 6171
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋɡeːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to grind; to rub; to sharpen
    2. to investigate; to study; to research
    3. Short for 研究生 (yánjiūshēng, “postgraduate studies or student”).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“inkstone”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

    1. to polish
    2. study of ...
    3. to sharpen

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (yeon) (hangeul , revised yeon, McCune–Reischauer yŏn, Yale yen)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nghiên, tên, nghiền, nghiện)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999