Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
U+7814, 研
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7814

[U+7813]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7815]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
研-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 112 +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 一口一廿 (MRMT), four-corner 11640, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 828, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24080
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1243, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2418, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+7814

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
研-bigseal.svg 研-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kŋeː
*kŋeː
*kŋeː, *ŋ̥ʰeːn
羿 *ŋeːs
*ŋ̥ʰaːn
*ŋaːn, *ŋ̥ʰeːn
*ŋreːn, *tŋ̥ʰeːn
*ŋeːn
*kŋeːn
*kŋeːn, *ŋeːn, *ŋ̥ʰreːŋ, *ŋreːɡ
*kŋeːn, *ŋeːns
*kŋeːn, *ŋ̥ʰeːn
*kŋeːnʔ, *ŋeːn, *ŋeːns
*ŋ̥ʰeːn, *ŋ̥ʰeːns
*ŋ̥ʰeːn
*ŋɡeːn, *ŋeːns
*ŋeːn
*hŋeːn
*ɡeːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋɡeːn, *ŋeːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kŋeːn).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • jin4 - literary;
  • ngaan4 - vernacular (“to grind”).
Note:
  • ngiēng - vernacular;
  • ngiĕng - literary (used in 研究).
Note:
  • gián - literary;
  • géng/nguí/gán/ngái - vernacular.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: ngiêng2 / ngiang2 / ngiêng5 / ngiang5 / ngoin2 / ngain2
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: ngiéng / ngiáng / ngiêng / ngiâng / ngóiⁿ / ngáiⁿ
    • IPA (key): /ŋieŋ⁵²/, /ŋiaŋ⁵²/, /ŋieŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋiaŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋõĩ⁵²/, /ŋãĩ⁵²/
Note:
  • =ngiêng2/ngiang2, ngiêng5/ngiang5 - literary;
  • ngoin2/ngain2 - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /niɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ȵian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /nian⁵⁵/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi⁵³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne³⁵/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ³³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋan⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /ŋien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /in²¹/
Hong Kong /jin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gian³⁵/
/giŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋaiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiaŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋin²³/ ~究
/ŋai²¹³/ ~碎

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋenH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋenH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɛnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɛnH/
Li
Rong
/ŋenH/
Wang
Li
/ŋienH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋienH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˤe[r]/
English grind; examine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 6171 6176
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋɡeːn/ /*ŋeːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to grind; to rub; to sharpen
  2. to investigate; to study; to research

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to polish
  2. study of ...
  3. to sharpen

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(yeon) (hangeul , revised yeon, McCune-Reischauer yŏn, Yale yen)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nghiên, tên, nghiền, nghiện)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999