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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 112 +11, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈金一口 (ICMR) or 戈木一口 (IDMR), four-corner 00261, composition)

  1. grind
  2. polish
  3. rub
  4. wear out

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 835, character 39
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24449
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1253, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2453, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+78E8

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (4)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/muɑ/ /muɑ/ /muɑ/ /muɑ/ /mwa/ /muɑ/ /muɑ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (4)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/muɑH/ /muɑH/ /muɑH/ /muɑH/ /mwaH/ /muɑH/ /muɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ma › /*mˤaj/ rub, grind
‹ maH › /*mˤaj-s/ grinding stone

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8706 1 /*maːl/
8710 1 /*maːls/

Verb[edit]

  1. to rub
  2. to wear out; to wear down; to erode

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ma) (hangeul , revised ma, McCune-Reischauer ma, Yale ma)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ma, mài)

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