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See also:
U+78E8, 磨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-78E8

[U+78E7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+78E9]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 112 +11, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈金一口 (ICMR) or 戈木一口 (IDMR), four-corner 00261, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 835, character 39
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24449
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1253, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2453, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+78E8

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mraːl
*mraːl
*mraːl
*mral
*mral
*mral
*mral, *mralʔ, *mrɯl
*mralʔ
*maːl, *maːls
*maːl
*maːl, *maːls
*maːl
*maːl
*maːlʔ
*maːls, *mɯːl
*hmral

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • bôa - vernacular;
  • mô͘ - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (4)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/muɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/muɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/muɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mwa/
Li
Rong
/muɑ/
Wang
Li
/muɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/muɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ma ›
Old
Chinese
/*mˤaj/
English rub, grind

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 8706
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*maːl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to grind; to sharpen
  2. to rub; to chafe
  3. to wear away; to obliterate
  4. to wear out; to wear down; to erode
  5. to dawdle; to waste (time)
  6. to pester; to plague (someone)

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (4)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/muɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/muɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/muɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mwaH/
Li
Rong
/muɑH/
Wang
Li
/muɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/muɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ maH ›
Old
Chinese
/*mˤaj-s/
English grinding stone

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 8710
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*maːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to grind; to mill
  2. to turn around
  3. grinder; mill

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. to polish
  2. to grind
  3. to brush (teeth)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ma) (hangeul , revised ma, McCune-Reischauer ma, Yale ma)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ma, mài)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.