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U+8328, 茨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8328

[U+8327]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8329]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 140 +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 廿戈一人 (TIMO) or 廿一一人 (TMMO), four-corner 44182, composition)

  1. caltrop

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1028, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30896
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1487, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3208, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+8328

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
茨-bigseal.svg 茨-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsli
*ʔsli
姿 *ʔsli
*ʔsli
*ʔsli
*ʔslis
*ʔsli, *zli
*sʰli
*sʰli
*sn̥ʰis
*sl̥ʰis
*sl̥ʰis
*zli
*zli
*zli
*zli
*zli, *zlɯɡ
*ʔsliːɡ

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (15)
Final () (15)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ziɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zi/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zjɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zi/
Li
Rong
/d͡zi/
Wang
Li
/d͡zi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zli/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. briar, bramble

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(ibara, ubara, umara, mubara): a thorny shrub.
Kanji in this term
いばら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/ubara//ibara/

Sound shift from Old Japanese ubara (see below).[1] Now the modern version of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いばら, rōmaji ibara)

  1. a thorny bush or shrub: a briar, a bramble
    • 1999 May 27, “かいのイバラ [Thorns of the Demon World]”, in Vol.3 (in Japanese), Konami:
       () (かい) (せい) (そく)するイバラ () () (とお)ろうとする (もの)にからみつく。
      Makai ni seisoku suru ibara. Muri ni tōrō to suru mono ni karamitsuku.
      A thorny plant that grows in the demon world. It constricts any unwary passerby.
  2. (regional, chiefly Kansai) a thorn on a plant
  3. general name for wild roses
  4. (figuratively) suffering, hardship, distress
  5. (architecture, construction) the point where two curved lines come together, such as the tip of a cusped gable
  6. (historical, slang) during the Edo period, a downmarket prostitute
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
うばら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Used in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[3]

Appears alongside the umara form (see below), suggesting possible prenasalization, perhaps realized as */umbara/.

Superseded by ibara above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana うばら, rōmaji ubara)

  1. (archaic) a thorny bush or shrub: a briar, a bramble
  2. (archaic) general name for wild roses
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
うまら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Used in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[4]

Appears alongside the ubara form (see above), suggesting possible prenasalization, perhaps realized as */umbara/.

Superseded by ibara above.

Noun[edit]

(hiragana うまら, rōmaji umara)

  1. (archaic) a thorny bush or shrub: a briar, a bramble
  2. (archaic) general name for wild roses

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
むばら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Appears in the Heian period,[1] apparently as a shift from ubara. Used in The Tales of Ise dating to the early 900s CE.[2]

Considering the earlier free alternation between ubara and umara, suggesting a possible prenasalized pronunciation such as */umbara/, this mubara may have arisen from an alternative spelling to clarify nasalization. Old Japanese orthography had no unambiguous means of specifying the nasal coda consonant (n), using (mu) instead. In fact, the modern kana (n) developed from a hentaigana form of (mu).

Superseded by ibara above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana むばら, rōmaji mubara)

  1. (archaic) a thorny bush or shrub: a briar, a bramble
  2. (archaic) general name for wild roses

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 16, poem 3832), text here
  4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4352), text here

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ja) (hangeul , revised ja, McCune-Reischauer cha, Yale ca)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tỳ, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.