- (UK) IPA(key): /kɒd/
- (US) IPA(key): /kɑd/
Audio (US) (file)
- Rhymes: -ɒd
- (in General American): Rhymes: -ɑːd
- Homophone: cawed (in accents with the cot-caught merger)
From Middle English cod, codde, from Old English cod, codd (“bag, pouch”), from Proto-Germanic *kuddô, from Proto-Indo-European *gewt- (“pouch, sack”), from *gew- (“to bend, bow, arch, vault, curve”). Cognate with Scots cod, codd, coad, kod (“pillow, cushion”), Low German Koden, Kon (“belly, paunch”), Middle Dutch codde (“scrotum”), Danish kodde (“testicle”), Swedish kudde (“cushion”), Faroese koddi (“pillow”), Icelandic koddi (“pillow”).
cod (plural cods)
- (obsolete) A small bag or pouch.
- 1626, Francis Bacon, Sylua syluarum: or A naturall historie In ten centuries:
- There is a Cod, or Bag, that groweth commonly in the Fields;
- 1685, Nathaniel Boteler, Six dialogues about sea-services between an high-admiral and a captain at sea:
- The Bunt is to a Sail,[The Bunt of a Sail.] as the Cod to a Net, being the very Pouch, or Bag of the Sail; and therefore all Sails have this Bunt,
- 1932, The Philippine Journal of Science - Volume 48, page 410:
- Perspective view of the gear, showing important parts: b, beam; bl. belly; br, brail; bt, bating; c cod end, or bag;
- (UK, obsolete) A husk or integument; a pod.
- 1603, William Shakespeare, As You Like It:
- and I remember the wooing of a peascod instead of her, from whom I tooke two cods, and giuing her them againe, said with weeping teares, weare these for my sake: wee that are true Louers, runne into strange capers; but as all is mortall in nature, so is all nature in loue, mortall in folly.
- 1640, Parkinson, John, Theatrum Botanicum, London: Thomas Cotes, page 226:
- 1. Colutæa vesicaria vulgaris sylvestris. Ordinary Bastard Sene with bladders.
This greater Bastard Sene groweth in time to be a tree of a reasonable greatnesse, the stem or trunck being of the bignesse of a mans arme or greater, covered with a blackish greene ragged barke, the wood whereof is harder then of an Elder, but with a pith in the middle of the branches which are divided many wayes, having divers winged leaves composed of many small round pointed or rather flat pointed leaves, set at severall distances, and somewhat like unto Licoris, or the Hatchet fitch, among which come forth yellow flowers like unto Broome flowers and as large; after which come thinne swelling cods, like unto thinne transparent bladders; wherein are conteined blacke seede set upon a middle ribbe within the bladders, which being alittle crushed betweene the fingers, will give a cracke like a bladder full of winde: the roote groweth great and wooddy, branching forth divers wayes.
- The cocoon of a silkworm.
- 1735, John Barrow, Dictionarium polygraphicum:
- As soon as it is arrived at the size and strength necessary for the beginning its cod, it makes its web; this is his first day's employment; on the second he forms his cod, and covers himself almost over with silk; the third day he is quite hid; and the following days employs himself in thickening and strengthening his cod; always working from one single end, which he never breaks himself; and which is so fine, and so long, that those who have nicely examin'd it affirm, that each cod contains silk enough to reach the length of six English miles.
- 1750 December, “Account of the Manner of breeding Silk-worms, and procuring Silk”, in The London Magazine, Or, Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer:
- In seven days, the cods being finished, they are gathered and laid inheaps till they have time to wind off the silk: But they first set apart the cods designed for propagation, upon a hurdle in a cool airy place.
- 1846, William Smellie, The Philosophy of Natural History, page 163:
- The whole moth kind, as well as the silkworm, immediately before their transformation into the chrysalis state, cover their bodies with a cod or clew of silk , though the nature of the silk , and their mode of spinning, are very different.
- (now rare) The scrotum (also in plural).
- 1646, Sir Thomas Browne, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, III.4:
- that which we call castoreum […] are not the same to be termed testicles or stones; for these cods or follicles are found in both sexes, though somewhat more protuberant in the male.
- 1662, Leonard Mascall, The Government of Cattel. Divided Into Three Books, page 241:
- Then let the cutter take and hold the tip of his cod in his left hand, and with a sharp knife cut the top thereof an inch long clean away.
- 1953, Francis Leary, The Swan and the Rose, page 22:
- I went on one knee and thrust up and into his cod.
- 2011, Ed Greenwood, Elminster's Daughter:
- Starmara made a muffled sound that might have been a bleat of alarm or might have merely been an expression of disgust, but revealed to her from-the-floor gaze was a leather cod of weary age and condition, below a long, continuous coil of coarse rope that had been wound round and round the merchant's hips, adding noticeably to his impressive girth—which shrank rapidly as the merchant tugged, hauled on the rope, then began a ponderous imitation of a dancing-lass undulating on a pedestal at a revel, shedding coils around his feet with a clumsiness that made Surth sigh and Starmara suddenly want to laugh.
- (obsolete or UK dialectal, Scotland) A pillow or cushion.
- 1823, John Galt, Ringan Gilhaize; or, The Covenanters, page 295:
- Provost Maccalzean, with the silver keys in his hand, and the eldest bailie with the crimson-velvet cod, whereon they were to be delivered to her Majesty, following as fast as any member of a city corporation could be reasonably be expected to do.
- 1889, Sir William Fraser, Memorials of the Earls of Haddington - Volume 2, page 299:
- Item , ane long velvet cod or cusheon ;
- 1915 [a.1642], Yorkshire Archæological Society, John Lister, editor, West Riding Sessions Records, fol. 148:
- Elizabeth Pitt, wife of Thomas Pitt of Haldon, clothier, Elizabeth Clerke of the same, spinster, and Jane Topliffe, wife of James Topliffe of the same, laborer, for stealing there on 1st Nov., 1640, a petticoat (parvacidam) value 4s., two children's coats value 2s., a feather bed cod value 2s., the property of Richard Bradley.
- Oldest English form cotfich as a surname in the 13th century; for more see cot (“chamber, cottage”).
- Same as Etymology 1, above; a bag or pouch, related to its bloated shape.
- From Latin gadus, from Ancient Greek γάδος (gádos, “fish”) with a possible pre-Greek or Semitic origin; for more see Atargatis, Cetus, and κῆτος (kêtos).
cod (plural cod or cods)
- The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.
- The sea fish of the genus Gadus generally, as inclusive of the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac or Gadus macrocephalus ogac).
- The sea fish of the family Gadidae which are sold as "cod", as haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and whiting (usually Merlangius merlangus).
- (informal, usually with qualifiers) Other unrelated fish which are similarly important to regional fisheries, as the hapuku and cultus cod.
- (informal, usually with qualifiers) Other unrelated fish which resemble the Atlantic cod, as the rock cod (Lotella rhacina) and blue cod (Parapercis colias).
The term Atlantic cod is now used where it is desired to distinguish the other members of Gadus or the Gadidae. Similar qualifiers are used to distinguish the other members, as well as the unrelated fish in the term's other senses. The plural form cod has become more common than the form cods.
- (Atlantic cod): milwell (many variants), Scotch cod, common cod
- (other Gadus spp., esp. Pacific cod): gray cod, grey cod, grayfish, greyfish; (Greenland cod) ogac
- (unrelated fish marketed as cod): haddock, whiting
- (similarly important local species): hapuku
- (unrelated similar species): rock cod, rockcod, beardie (Lotella rhacina); cod icefish (Nototheniidae); marbled rockcod (Notothenia rossii); emerald rockcod (Trematomus bernacchii); honeycomb rockcod, dwarf spotted rockcod (Epinephelus merra), Maori cod, Magellanic rockcod, blue notothenia, orange throat notothen (Paranotothenia magellanica), brown spotted reef cod, brownspotted grouper (Epinephelus chlorostigma), red rock cod, vermilion rockcod (Scorpaena papillosa); red snapper (Lutjanus spp.); vermilion seaperch, vermilion rockfish (Sebastes miniatus); grouper (the Serranidae); thornyhead (Sebastidae)
- (young): codling
- (small, obsolete): morhwell
- (consumed codlings): scrod
- (air-dried, unsalted): stockfish
- (freshly-salted): greenfish, green fish, green cod, white cod
- (dried & salted): clipfish, salt cod, dry cod, ling, haberdine
- (cured in lye): lutefisk
- (pancakes): bacalaito
- Antarctic cod (Dissostichus mawsoni (Nototheniidae))
- Arctic cod
- Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua (Gadidae))
- Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod (Gadidae))
- bank cod
- barramundi cod (Chromileptes altivelis, Epinephelus altivellis (Serranidae))
- bastard cod (Ophiodon elongatus (Hexagrammidae))
- bay cod
- black-arse cod
- black cod (Anoplopoma fimbria (Anoplopomatidae))
- Bloomfield River cod (Guyu wujalwujalensis (Percichthyidae))
- blue cod (Parapercis colias (Pinguipedidae))
- blue eye cod
- bluenose cod (Maccullochella macquariensis)
- breaksea cod (Epinephelides armatus (Serranidae))
- brown cod
- brown spotted reef cod (Epinephelus chlorostigma (Serranidae))
- buffalo cod (Ophiodon elongatus (Hexagrammidae))
- Cape Cod
- chiseltooth grenadier cod
- clam cod
- Clarence River cod
- coal cod
- cod banger, cod-banger
- codbank, cod-bank
- cod chowder, cod-chowder
- cod end
- codfish aristocracy, cod-fish aristocracy
- codfish, cod-fish
- codfisher, cod-fisher
- codfisherman, cod-fisherman
- cod fishery, cod-fishery
- cod fishing, cod-fishing
- cod hook, cod-hook
- cod icefish (Nototheniidae)
- Cod League
- codline, cod line, cod-line
- cod-liver oil
- cod liver oil
- codmop, cod-mop
- cod oil, cod-oil
- cod psychologist
- cod psychology
- cod reggae
- codsmack, cod-smack
- codsound, cod-sound
- Cod Wars
- cod worm (Lernaeocera branchialis)
- common cod (Gadus morhua (Gadidae))
- coral cod
- cow cod soup
- cultus cod, cultus-cod (Ophiodon elongatus (Hexagrammidae))
- cured cod
- deep-water cod
- dry cod
- dwarf spotted rockcod
- eastern cod
- Eastern freshwater cod
- East Siberian cod
- eel cod
- emerald rockcod
- Eucla cod
- George's cod
- gray cod, graycod
- green cod
- Greenland cod (Gadus ogac (Gadidae))
- grenadier cod
- grey cod, greycod
- herring cod
- honeycomb rockcod (Epinephelus chlorostigma (Serranidae))
- Hook and Cod Wars
- inshore cod
- ling cod, lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus (Hexagrammidae))
- lockee cod, lockee-cod
- long-finned cod
- Magellanic rockcod
- Maori cod
- marbled rockcod
- Mary River cod
- morid cod
- Murray cod
- native cod
- New Zealand cod (Parapercis colias (Pinguipedidae))
- night cod
- Pacific cod
- pelagic cod
- pine-tree cod
- polar cod
- poor cod (Trisopterus minutus)
- potato cod
- power cod
- red cod
- red rock cod
- reef cod
- Richmond River cod
- rock cod, rockcod (Lotella rhacina (Moridae))
- Sacred Cod
- saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis)
- salt cod
- Scotch cod
- shoal-water cod
- shore cod
- sleepy cod
- small-headed cod
- smallscaled cod
- soft cod (Lotella rhacina (Moridae))
- tadpole cod
- tiger cod
- tomcod (Microgadus tomcod (Gadidae))
- tommycod (Microgadus tomcod (Gadidae))
- toothed cod
- trout cod (Maccullochella macquariensis)
- true cod (Gadus spp. (Gadidae))
- unicorn cod, unicorn-cod (Bregmaceros mcclellandi)
- vermilion rockcod (Sebastes miniatus)
- white cod (Gadus morhua (Gadidae))
- winter cod (Microgadus tomcod (Gadidae))
- worm cod
Origin unknown. Attested in reference to a person (though not always a stupid or foolish person) from the end of the 17th century. The Oxford English Dictionary (1891) notes that a suggested link to codger is unlikely, as cod appears much earlier.
cod (plural cods)
- A joke or an imitation.
- I assume it all could just be a cod.
- A stupid or foolish person.
- He's making a right cod of himself.
- Having the character of imitation; jocular. (now usually attributive, forming mostly compound adjectives).
- “Illegitimi non carborundum” is a well-known example of cod Latin.
- Dalton categorises Muse's latest composition as “cod-classical bombast”.
- 2006 July, Kim Newman, “Ultraviolet”, in Sight and Sound, volume 16, page 78:
- […] the director's vision has devolved from cod Orwell to riffing off bad girl art comic books and generally feeble posing.
- 2021 February 5, Nicholas Barber, “The Great Dictator: The film that dared to laugh at Hitler”, in BBC:
- Hynkel's anti-Semitic rants (consisting of cod-German punctuated by shouts of "Juden") are terrifying, but there is no conviction behind them, just a desperate need to distract the Tomainians from his economic failures.
- (Polari) Bad.
- 1997, Gardiner, James, Who's a Pretty Boy Then?, page 137:
- Will you take a varder at the cartz on the feely-omi in the naf strides: the one with the bona blue ogles polarying the omi-palone with a vogue on and a cod sheitel.
- 2016 September 18, Cotton, Antony, Twitter:
- Hahahahaha! @AnnaJaneCasey Vada the homi ajax, with the naff riah and the cod lally drags. Ooooo she's camp...
From Old English codd (“bag, pouch”), from Proto-West Germanic *koddō, from Proto-Germanic *kuddô, from Proto-Indo-European *gewt- (“pouch, sack”), from *gew- (“to bend, bow, arch, vault, curve”). The "pillow" sense is from Old Danish kodde or Old Norse koddi, from the same Proto-Germanic source.
cod (plural coddes)
- A seedpod; a plant's natural casing for its seeds.
- A scrotum, ballsack; a case for the testicles.
- A pillow or cushion; a piece of cushioning.
- (rare) A sack or pouch; a case for items.
- (rare) The gullet, windpipe or esophagus.
- (rare) The chest or stomach region.
- (rare) A ball bearing; a metal ball acting to cushion.
cod (plural coddes)
- English: cod
cod n (plural coduri)
cod m (plural cozi)
cod (plural cods)
cod m (plural codau)
|Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.|
- amgodio (“to encode”)
- cod agored (“open source”)
- cod bar (“barcode”)
- cod ffynhonnell (“source code”)
- cod genynnol (“genetic code”)
- cod gwisg (“dress code”)
- Cod Penyd (“Penal Code”)
- cod post (“postcode”)
- cod lliwiau (“colour code”)
- cod moesol (“moral code”)
- cod nodau (“character code”)
- cod ymarfer (“code of practice”)
- cod ymddygiad (“code of conduct”)
- codio (“to code”)
- codydd (“coder”)
- R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “cod”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies