kost

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See also: kosť, Kost, and köst

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *kostь, from Proto-Indo-European *kost-, cf. *h₃ost-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kost f

  1. bone (any of the components of an endoskeleton, made of bone)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

External links[edit]

  • kost in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • kost in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has articles on:

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Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse kostr, from Middle Low German kost, koste.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kɔst/, [kʰʌsd̥]

Noun[edit]

kost c (singular definite kosten, not used in plural form)

  1. food (any substance consumed by living organisms to sustain life)
  2. diet (food a person or animal consumes, habitual consumption)
  3. board (regular meals or the amount paid for them in a place of lodging)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse *kvǫstr, from Middle Low German quast (brush, tassel).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kost/, [kʰɔsd̥]

Noun[edit]

kost c (singular definite kosten, plural indefinite koste)

  1. broom, besom
  2. brush
Inflection[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Dutch cost, from Old French cost.

Noun[edit]

kost m (plural kosten, diminutive kostje n)

  1. cost, price
  2. (in the plural) expenses
  3. (used absolutely, with definite article) board, livelihood, meals and lodgings
  4. food, nourishment
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

kost

  1. first-, second- and third-person singular present indicative of kosten
  2. imperative of kosten

Anagrams[edit]


Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *kansti, from Proto-Baltic *kond-t(e)i, from an ablauted form *kond- of Proto-Indo-European *ken- (to rub, to scratch, to scrape) (whence also kniest (to itch), q.v.) with an extra -d. Cognates include Lithuanian ką́sti, Proto-Slavic *kǫdsъ (Old Church Slavonic кѫсъ (kǫsŭ), Russian кус (kus, mouthful), кусать (kusát’, to bite, to sting), Bulgarian късам (kǎ́sam), Czech kousati, Polish kąsać (to bite, to sting)), Sanskrit खादति (khā́dati, to bite, to eat), Ancient Greek κνώδοντες (knṓdontes, metal teeth on sword).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Verb[edit]

kost tr., 1st conj., pres. kožu, kod, kož, past kodu

  1. to bite, to take a bite (to use one's teeth to press, to cut off a piece of something)
    kost maizes kumosu — to bite (off) a mouthfull of bread
    kost riekstu — to bite a nut, to break its shell with one's teeth
    kost auklu, diegu ar zobiem — to bite (= cut) a string, a cord with (one's) teeth
    desu koda, Pāvils no viena gala, Roberts no otra — they bit the sausage, Pāvils from one end, Roberts from the other
    Baiba kož maizi pa mazam gabaliņam, lai ilgāk pietiktu — Baiba bites the bread in small bites, so that it lasts longer
    smeikli kaklu nelauzīs, bez zobiem riekstu nekodīs — laughter won't break (one's) neck, without teeth (one) won't bite (= break open) a nut
  2. to bite in (to press, to sink one's teeth into something)
    kost tomātā, ābolā — to bite (in) a tomato, an apple
    Andris kāri kož biezajā sviestmaizē — Andris bit (in) the thick sandwich with appetite
  3. to bite, to chew (to reduce (usually food) to pieces with one's teeth)
    Julcīte savu cukura gabaliņu iemet mutē un kož kraukšķinādama un tīksminādamās — Julcīte threw her sugar cube into (her) mouth and bit, chewed, crunching and enjoying it
    kaza kož lapas ar saviem asajiem zobiem — the goat is biting, chewing leaves with its sharp teeth
  4. (colloquial) to eat a little, to have a bite
    viņa no rīta nav kumosu kodusi — she hasn't had a bite (= anything to eat) since morning
  5. to bite (to be able to bite; to sink one's teeth into something in order to hurt or kill; (of insects) to sting)
    čūska kož — the snake bites
    svešs zvērs var pēkšņi kost — a strange animal may suddenly bite
    vilks koda avis — the wolf bit the sheep
    kostas brūcesbitten wounds (i.e., wounds from bites)
    odi, blusas, dunduris kož — mosquitoes, fleas, horseflies bite
    mušas koda kā trakas — the flies bit like crazy
    visu nedēļu dunduri koduši miesu — all week the horseflies have been biting (our) flesh
  6. (figuratively, of hard, sharp objects) to cause sudden sharp pain
    vajadzēs tev savaldīties: ganu rīkstes kož — you will have to be careful: the shepherd's rod bites (= hurts)
  7. (figuratively, of words, thoughts) to cause sudden discomfort
    visvairāk kremt un kož tā aušīgā iedoma — that flighty whim gnaws and bites most of all
  8. (of cold or hot weather) to bite (to freeze] or heat so much that they no longer grow)
    salnas kosta bērza lapa, ziedus — the frosts bit the birch leaves, the flowers
    saulstaru kosta zāle — sun(rays)-bitten grass
  9. (of time, rust) to damage or destroy slowly
    rūsa nespēj kost — rust won't be able to bite it
    laika kostais kuršu zobens — time-bitten (worn-out) Curonian sword
  10. to bite (to cause a sore, burning sensation)
    sinepes kož mēlē — must bites the tongue
    dūmi sāka kost acīs un kaklā — the smoke started biting in the eyes and throat
    sviedri ritēja pāri pierei un koda acīs — the sweat ran past (his) forehead and bit in (his) eyes
    laukā asi koda sals — outside, the frost bit sharp
    vaigos kož sals, un sniegs jautri gurkst zem zābaku zolēm — the frost bit in the cheeks, and the snow crunched under the boot soles
    rupji krekli kož ādā — coarse shirts bite the skin
  11. (of bright lights, colors) to bite (to cause a feeling of pain in the eyes)
    lielās dzīvsudraba spuldzes ir tik spilgtas, ka kož acīs — the large mercury lamps are so bright that they bite in the eyes
    lakats bija jauns un košs, par daudz košs, koda acīs — the scarf was new and bright, too bright: it bit in the eyes
  12. (of tools, blades) to be sharp when in use, to cut well
    zāģis koda labi — the saw bit (= cut) well
    jūsu gudrība ka truls nazis: spīdēt spīd, bet nekož — your wisdom (is) like a dull knife: it does shine, but it doesn't bite (= doesn't cut)
  13. to bite (to press one's teeth, usually expressing tension)
    kost zobus lūpā — to bite (lit. to bite one's teeth) in(to) one's lip
    meitene koda lūpā, līdz tā kļuva balta — the girl bit her lip until it became white
  14. to bite (to make something, usually a gap, hole, etc., with one's teeth)
    Kains gurķa auglī dižu robu kodīs — Kains will bite a big hole in the cucumber plant

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “kost” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Verb[edit]

kost

  1. indefinite singular past participle of kosa and kose

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *kostь, from Proto-Indo-European *kost-, cf. *h₃ost-.

Noun[edit]

kȏst f (Cyrillic spelling ко̑ст)

  1. a bone

Declension[edit]


Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *kostь, from Proto-Indo-European *kost-, cf. *h₃ost-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kóst f (genitive kostí, nominative plural kostí)

  1. bone

Declension[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.