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See also:
U+708E, 炎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-708E

[U+708D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+708F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

(Kangxi radical 86, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 火火 (FF), four-corner 90809, composition火)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 667, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18910
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1076, character 21
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2193, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+708E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (fire) + (fire). Duplication of (“fire”).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ljam (tongue; lick; flame) (STEDT). Cognate with Chepang लेम्‍ह्‌सा (lemh‑, to lick), Burmese အလျှံ (a.hlyam, flame; iridescence). Within Chinese, cognate with (OC *loms, “to flame up”), (OC *l̥ʰiːmʔ, “to lick”). Compare also Khmer លាម (liəm, to flare up) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (35)
Final () (154)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠiᴇm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚiɛm/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiæm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦjiam/
Li
Rong
/ɣjɛm/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭɛm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jim4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjem ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷ(r)am/
English burn, blazing

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14315
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦlam/

Definitions[edit]

  1. flame; blaze; rising flame
  2. to burn; to blaze
  3. blazing; burning hot; scorching
  4. red; bright red
  5. (figuratively) power and influence
  6. (medicine) inflammation
  7. (mythology) Yan Emperor (ancient legendary Chinese ruler)

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (えん) (en)
  • Korean: (, yeom)
  • Vietnamese: viêm ()

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ほのお
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings


(rare)
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

⟨po no2 po⟩ → */ponəpo//ɸonoɸo//ɸonowo//honowo//honoː/

From Old Japanese (pono2po).

Compound of (ho, combining form of hi, “fire) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (ho, ear, head).[1][2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ほのお) (honōほのほ (fonofo)?

  1. a flame
    • 1079, Konkōmyō Saishōōkyō Ongi (page 5 (front))[6]
      保乃保
    • 2001 December 22, “真紅眼の黒竜(レッドアイズ・ブラックドラゴン) [Red-Eyes Black Dragon]”, in Premium Pack 5, Konami:
      (しん)()()()(こく)(りゅう)(いか)りの(くろ)(ほのお)はその()(うつ)(もの)(すべ)てを()()くす。
      Shinku no me o motsu kokuryū. Ikari no kuroki honō wa sono me ni utsuru mono subete o yakitsukusu.
      A black dragon with crimson eyes. Its black flames of fury burn away anything that’s reflected in those eyes.
    ハリー・ポッターと(ほのお)のゴブレット
    Harī Pottā to Honō no Goburetto
    Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
    ()(ひろ)がる(ほのお)
    Moehirogaru Honō
    Catching Fire
  2. (figuratively) an intense emotion, passion
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ほむら
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings


(rare)

Compound of (ho, fire, combining form) +‎ (mura, gathering, group).[2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ほむら) (homura

  1. a flame
  2. (figuratively) an intense emotion, passion
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
えん
Grade: S
on’yomi

/emʉ//eɴ/

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠiᴇm).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(えん) (-en

  1. (medicine) -itis, inflammation of...
Derived terms[edit]

Affix[edit]

(えん) (en

  1. flame, blaze
  2. burning
  3. firehot, red-hot

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
えん
Grade: S
on’yomi
Alternative spellings


(rare)

is a daiyōji replacing .

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(えん) (en

  1. flame, blaze
  2. (figuratively) passion, emotion
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  6. ^ Tsukishima, Hiroshi (1079) Kojisho Ongi Shūsei 12: Konkōmyō Saishōōkyō Ongi (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Kyūko Shoin, published 1979, →ISBN.

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠiᴇm). Recorded as Middle Korean (yem) (Yale: yem) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 불꽃 (bulkkot yeom))

  1. Hanja form? of (flame).
  2. Hanja form? of ((medicine) inflammation).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compound of (po, combining form of pi2, “fire) +‎ (no2, possessive particle) +‎ (po, ear, head).[1][2][3]

Noun[edit]

(pono2po) (kana ほのほ)

  1. a flame
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3344), text here
      ...螢成髣髴聞而大土乎火穗跡而...
      ...potaru nasu pono2ka ni ki1ki1te opotuti wo pono2po to2 pumi1te...
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: (honō)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: viêm

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.