عالم

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Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Aramaic עָלְמָא‎ / ܥܳܠܡܳܐ(ʿāləmā) or Hebrew עוֹלָם(ʿōlām), possibly from Akkadian 𒂖𒆷𒈬𒌋𒀀 (/ellamu, illamu/, front, before; both temporally and in location; coming before your time or being currently physically before you now).

The pattern فَاعَل(fāʿal) is considered originally foreign to Arabic and Ethiopic, occurring only in likely loanwords such as طَابَع(ṭābaʿ), خَاتَم(ḵātam), فَالَج(fālaj). It should be noted some of these loans are suspected to be early, such as خَاتَم(ḵātam) being present in Old Arabian Inscriptions and عَالَم(ʿālam) retaining the sound masculine plural ending in spite of being treated as a non-human plural; a feature that suggests it existed prior to the restriction of such a use exclusively for male humans. Consequently due to its early appearance, the فَاعَل(fāʿal) pattern has since become a sparsely used coined pattern in its own right, typically however still being reserved for loanwords using the structure of these earlier loans as their basis; for example the later loan طَاقَم(ṭāqam).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

عَالَم (ʿālamm (plural عَالَمُون(ʿālamūn) or عَوَالِم(ʿawālim))

  1. world
  2. universe, cosmos, existence
  3. things, creation, that which exists before you
  4. nation, people, group, type, or kind
Declension[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Derived from the active participle of the verb عَلِمَ(ʿalima, to know), from the root ع ل م(ʿ-l-m).

Noun[edit]

عَالِم (ʿālimm (plural عَالِمُون(ʿālimūn) or عُلَمَاء(ʿulamāʾ), feminine عَالِمَة(ʿālima))

  1. scholar, man of letters
  2. knowledgeable person, savant
Declension[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • ˁlm”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • Fischer, Wolfdietrich (2006) Grammatik des Klassischen Arabisch (in German), 4th edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, →ISBN, § 62 Anm. 5, page 36
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1880) De vocabulis in antiquis Arabum carminibus et in Corano peregrinis[1] (in Latin), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 17
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1880) De vocabulis in antiquis Arabum carminibus et in Corano peregrinis[2] (in Latin), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 21
  • Jeffery, Arthur (1938) The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series; 79), Baroda: Oriental Institute, pages 208–209
  • Nöldeke, Theodor (1875) Mandäische Grammatik[3] (in German), Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, page 112

Ottoman Turkish[edit]

عَالِم

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic عَالَم(ʿālam).

Noun[edit]

عالم (alem) (plural عالمون(alemun), and عوالم(ewalim))

  1. world, universe, everything except God
  2. age, time, period
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic عَالِم(ʿālim).

Noun[edit]

عالم (alim) (plural علما(ulema), and علام(ullam))

  1. learned man, scholar, man of letters
  2. particularly, a member of a certain class of men with a state-sponsored tenure, as distinguished from a mufti, being part of the askeri class, alim [since Mehmed II]
Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Persian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic عَالَم(ʿālam).

Noun[edit]

Dari Persian عالم
Iranian Persian عالم
Tajiki Persian олам (olam)

عالم ('âlam)

  1. world
  2. universe

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic عَالِم(ʿālim).

Adjective[edit]

Dari Persian عالم
Iranian Persian عالم
Tajiki Persian олим (olim)

عالم ('âlem)

  1. learned
  2. knowledgeable
Related terms[edit]

Urdu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic عَالَم(ʿālam).

Noun[edit]

عالم ('ālamm (Hindi spelling आलम)

  1. world
  2. universe
  3. mankind
  4. kingdom
  5. season
  6. state, condition
  7. age, period

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic عَالِم(ʿālim).

Adjective[edit]

عالم ('ālim) (Hindi spelling आलिम)

  1. learned
  2. knowledgeable
  3. intelligent
  4. wise

Noun[edit]

عالم ('ālimm (Hindi spelling आलिम)

  1. doctor
  2. scientist

Related terms[edit]