Category:Dutch class 4 strong verbs

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Fundamental » All languages » Dutch » Lemmas » Verbs » Verbs by inflection type » Strong verbs » Class 4 strong verbs

Verbs where the ablaut vowel was followed by a sonorant (m, n, l, r) but no other consonant in Proto-Indo-European.


The fourth class of Dutch strong verbs is rather small with respect to the number of roots, is characterized by a vowel length change between the singular and plural forms of the past tense. For example breken - brak - braken - gebroken

The paradigm is:

Form Regular Anomalous
Present tense /-eː-/ /-eː-/
Past tense singular /-ɑ-/ /-oː-/
Past tense plural /-aː-/ /-oː-/
Past participle /-oː-/ /-oː-/

A small group of the verbs in the fourth class have replaced the past tense vowel with -o(o)- (/oː/).

For example wegen - woog - wogen - gewogen