adianoeta R ex - like a double entendre or perhaps "Rick, I'd like you to meet Colonel Strasser. He's one of the officers who has given the Third Reich the reputation it has.". That is, an expression understood one way by part of the audience and in an opposing way by another part.
characterismus The description of a person's character. If this is restricted to the body, this is effictio; if restricted to a person's habits, this is ethopoeia. Characterismus is a kind of enargia (principally when describing physical attributes).
charientismus Mollifying harsh words by answering them with a smooth and appeasing mock.
climax/w:climax (figure of speech) Generally, the arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of increasing importance, often in parallel structure. More specifically, climax is the repetition of the last word of one clause or sentence at the beginning of the next, through several clauses or sentences (= anadiplosis)
coenotes Repetition of two different phrases: one at the beginning and the other at the end of successive paragraphs. Composed of anaphora and epistrophe, coenotes is simply a more specific kind of symploce (the repetition of phrases, not merely words).
conduplicatio The repetition of a word or words. A general term for repetition sometimes carrying the more specific meaning of repetition of words in adjacent phrases or clauses. Sometimes used to name either ploce or epizeuxis.
congeries Piling up words of differing meaning but for a similar emotional effect.
distinctio la differentiation Eliminating ambiguity surrounding a word by explicitly specifying each of its distinct meanings.
distributio la 1. Assigning roles among or specifying the duties of a list of people, sometimes accompanied by a conclusion. 2. Sometimes this term is simply a synonym for diaeresis or merismus, which are more general figures involving division.
ekphrasis/ecphrasis R 1. Vivid description; using details to place an object, person, or event before the listeners' eyes (=hypotyposis or evidentia). See also enargia. 2. The Greek term for the progymnasmata exercise, description. 3. Ecphrasis has another more restricted definition: the literary description of a work of art. Philostratus Lemnius helped to fix this more restricted sense of this term in the second century in his Imagines.
ecthlipsis The omission or elision of letters or syllables (often the consonant "m" and the vowel that precedes it) for the sake of poetical meter. A kind of metaplasm specific to Latin.
effictio A verbal depiction of someone's body, often from head to toe.
emphasis Giving prominence to a quality or trait by conceiving it as constituting the very substance in which it inheres.
enallage/w:enallage R ex The substitution of grammatically different but semantically equivalent constructions. (Substitition)
enantiosis Using opposing or contrary descriptions together, typically in a somewhat paradoxical manner.
enargia Generic name for a group of figures aiming at vivid, lively description.
encomium R Generally, encomium means the praise of a person or thing. While keeping this general meaning, "encomium" also names several distinct aspects of rhetoric: 1. A general category of oratory (nearly synonymous with "epideictic") 2. A method within rhetorical pedagogy (one of the "progymnasmata": Encomium) 3. A figure of speech. As a figure, "encomium" means praising a person or thing, but occuring on a smaller scale than an entire speech.
energia la A general term referring to the "energy" or vigor of a expression.
enigma Obscuring one's meaning by presenting it within a riddle or by means of metaphors that purposefully challenge the reader or hearer to understand.
ennoia A kind of purposeful holding back of information that nevertheless hints at what is meant. A kind of circuitous speaking.
enthymeme/w:enthymeme The informal method of reasoning typical of rhetorical discourse. The enthymeme is sometimes defined as a "truncated syllogism" since either the major or minor premise found in that more formal method of reasoning is left implied. The enthymeme typically occurs as a conclusion coupled with a reason. When several enthymemes are linked together, this becomes sorites.
epanalepsis/w:epanalepsis Repetition of the same word or clause after intervening matter. More strictly, repetition at the end of a line, phrase, or clause of the word or words that occurred at the beginning of the same line, phrase, or clause.
epanodos R 1. Repeating the main terms of an argument in the course of presenting it. 2. Returning to the main theme after a digression 3. Returning to and providing additional detail for items mentioned previously (often using parallelism).
epitrope A figure in which one turns things over to one's hearers, either pathetically, ironically, or in such a way as to suggest a proof of something without having to state it. Epitrope often takes the form of granting permission (hence its Latin name, permissio), submitting something for consideration, or simply referring to the abilities of the audience to supply the meaning that the speaker passes over (hence Puttenham's term, figure of reference). Epitrope can be either biting in its irony, or flattering in its deference.
epizeugma Placing the verb that holds together the entire sentence (made up of multiple parts that depend upon that verb) either at the very beginning or the very ending of that sentence.
example Amplifying a point by providing a true or feigned example.
excitatio To excite an audience, especially out of a stupor or boredom. Kinds of excitatio include an acclamatio, an invocation, a digression affirming, denying, or prohibiting something, or a simple admonishment not to sleep.
exclamatio Most often exclamatio is simply the Latin term for ecphonesis (an emotional exclamation); however, it has also been used (as in the Ad Herennium) to indicate apostrophe.
exergasia/w:exergasia Repetition of the same idea, changing either its words, its delivery, or the general treatment it is given. A method for amplification, variation, and explanation. As such, exergasia compares to the progymnasmata exercises.
expeditio la After enumerating all possibilities by which something could have occurred, the speaker eliminates all but one (=apophasis). Although the Ad Herennium author lists expeditio as a figure, it is more properly considered a method of argument (sometimes known as the "Method of Residues" when employed in refutation.)
horismus Providing a clear, brief definition, especially by explaining differences between associated terms.
hydrographia Creating an illusion of reality through vivid description of water. A type of enargia.
hypallage/w:hypallage R 1. Shifting the application of words. Mixing the order of which words should correspond with which others. 2. Also, sometimes, a synonym for metonymy (see Quintilian).
hyperbaton/w:hyperbaton R 1. An inversion of normal word order. A generic term for a variety of figures involving transposition (see below), it is sometimes synonymous with anastrophe. 2. Adding a word or thought to a sentence that is already semantically complete, thus drawing emphasis to the addition.
hyperbole/w:hyperbole Rcat Rhetorical exaggeration. Hyperbole is often accomplished via comparisons, similes, and metaphors.
inopinatum The expression of one's inability to believe or conceive of something; a type of faux wondering). As such, this kind of paradox is much like aporia and functions much like a rhetorical question or erotema.
interrogatio la 1. erotema (the rhetorical question). In the Ad Herennium, however, interrogatio is described as employing a question as a way of confirming or reinforcing the argument one has just made.
inter se pugnantia Using direct address to reprove someone before an audience, pointing out the contradictions in that person's character, often between what a person does and says.
intimation Hinting at a meaning but not stating it explicitly
irony Rcat Speaking in such a way as to imply the contrary of what one says, often for the purpose of derision, mockery, or jest.
parabola The explicit drawing of a parallel between two essentially dissimilar things, especially with a moral or didactic purpose. A parable. Parabola can be considered a type of metaphor or simile, or allegory (within its more constrained meaning). Bede refers to this figure, along with paradigma and icon, as kinds of homoeosis.
periergia Overuse of words or figures of speech. As such, it may simply be considered synonymous with macrologia. However, as Puttenham's term suggests, periergia may differ from simple superfluity in that the language appears over-labored.
period R The periodic sentence, characterized by the suspension of the completion of sense until its end. This has been more possible and favored in Greek and Latin, languages already favoring the end position for the verb, but has been approximated in uninflected languages such as English.
periphrasis R The substitution of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name (a species of circumlocution); or, conversely, the use of a proper name as a shorthand to stand for qualities associated with it. (Substitition)
perissologia/w:perissologia it In general, the fault of wordiness. More specifically, periphrasis, circumlocution, synonymia, accumulatio, or amplification carried to a fault by length or overelaborateness.
peristasis A description of attendant circumstances: time, place, occasion, personal characteristics, background, education, habits, etc.
ploce/w:ploce (figure of speech) R The repetition of a single word for rhetorical emphasis. Ploce is a general term and has sometimes been used in place of more specific terms such as polyptoton (when the repetition involves a change in the form of the word) or antanaclasis (when the repetition involves a change in meaning).
polyptoton/w:polyptoton R Repeating a word, but in a different form. Using a cognate of a given word in close proximity.
pragmatographia The description of an action (such as a battle, a feast, a marriage, a burial, etc.). A kind of enargia. This figure is frequently used in drama for exposition or to report what has happened offstage.