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See also: Cæpio



Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *kapjō, from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂pyéti, from the root *keh₂p- (to seize, grab).

Cognate with Albanian kap,[1][2] Breton kavout, Welsh cael, English have, heave, Lithuanian kàmpt, Ancient Greek κάπτω (káptō).

Alternative forms[edit]


capiō (present infinitive capere, perfect active cēpī, supine captum); third conjugation iō-variant

  1. to take, to capture, to catch, to seize, to take captive, to storm
    Synonyms: expugnō, teneō, obsideo, retineo, comprehendō, dēprehendō, apprehendō, arripiō, prehendō, capessō, occupō, prehēnso
  2. to take on, adopt
    capere consiliumto make a resolution
    • Caesar, de Bello Gallico VII, 26:
      Cōnsilium cēpērunt ex oppidō profugere
      Adopted a design to flee from the town
  3. to hold, to contain
    Synonyms: habeō, contineo, teneō, comprehendō, apprehendō, concipio
  4. to occupy, to possess
    Synonyms: potior, possideō, obtineō, compleō, adipīscor, apprehendō, teneō, comprehendō, obsideō
  5. to take hold of, to take possession of, to possess
    Metus mē cēpit.Fear took hold of me.
  6. to take in, to comprehend, to understand
    Synonyms: apprehendō, comprehendō, dēprehendō, accipiō, cognōscō, concipiō, teneō, apīscor, complector, excipiō, exaudiō, cōnsequor
    Antonyms: nesciō, ignōrō
  7. to choose, select, elect
    Synonyms: legō, dēligō, ēligō, optō, adoptō, dēsūmō, dēstinō, sēpōnō, sūmō, creō
  8. to reach (usually indicates traveling by sea)
  9. to take in, to receive
  10. to get, to receive (said of property, value, money)
  11. to captivate, to charm, to fascinate, to enchant
    Synonyms: indūcō, sēdūcō, dēdūcō, sollicitō, persuādeō, alliciō, pelliciō
   Conjugation of capiō (third conjugation -variant)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present capiō capis capit capimus capitis capiunt
imperfect capiēbam capiēbās capiēbat capiēbāmus capiēbātis capiēbant
future capiam capiēs capiet capiēmus capiētis capient
perfect cēpī cēpistī cēpit cēpimus cēpistis cēpērunt,
pluperfect cēperam cēperās cēperat cēperāmus cēperātis cēperant
future perfect cēperō cēperis cēperit cēperimus cēperitis cēperint
sigmatic future1 capsō capsis capsit capsimus capsitis capsint
passive present capior caperis,
capitur capimur capiminī capiuntur
imperfect capiēbar capiēbāris,
capiēbātur capiēbāmur capiēbāminī capiēbantur
future capiar capiēris,
capiētur capiēmur capiēminī capientur
perfect captus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect captus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect captus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present capiam capiās capiat capiāmus capiātis capiant
imperfect caperem caperēs caperet caperēmus caperētis caperent
perfect cēperim cēperīs cēperit cēperīmus cēperītis cēperint
pluperfect cēpissem cēpissēs cēpisset cēpissēmus cēpissētis cēpissent
sigmatic aorist1 capsim capsīs capsīt capsīmus capsītis capsint
passive present capiar capiāris,
capiātur capiāmur capiāminī capiantur
imperfect caperer caperēris,
caperētur caperēmur caperēminī caperentur
perfect captus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect captus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cape capite
future capitō capitō capitōte capiuntō
passive present capere capiminī
future capitor capitor capiuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives capere cēpisse captūrum esse capī captum esse captum īrī
participles capiēns captūrus captus capiendus,
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
capiendī capiendō capiendum capiendō captum captū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to").

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From the above verb + -iō.


capiō f (genitive capiōnis); third declension

  1. A taking
  2. (law) The right of property acquired by prescription

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative capiō capiōnēs
Genitive capiōnis capiōnum
Dative capiōnī capiōnibus
Accusative capiōnem capiōnēs
Ablative capiōne capiōnibus
Vocative capiō capiōnēs


  1. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998), “kap”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 169
  2. ^ Demiraj, B. (1997), “kap”, in Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: []] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7) (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi
  • capio”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • capio”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • capio in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to be unable to sleep: somnum capere non posse
    • to begin with a thing: initium capere; incipere ab aliqua re
    • to derive (great) profit , advantage from a thing: fructum (uberrimum) capere, percipere, consequi ex aliqua re
    • to suffer loss, harm, damage: detrimentum capere, accipere, facere
    • to derive pleasure from a thing: voluptatem ex aliqua re capere or percipere
    • to infer by comparison, judge one thing by another: coniecturam alicuius rei facere or capere ex aliqua re
    • to form a plan, make a resolution: consilium capere, inire (de aliqua re, with Gen. gerund., with Inf., more rarely ut)
    • I am undecided..: incertus sum, quid consilii capiam
    • I forget something: oblivio alicuius rei me capit
    • to take a lesson from some one's example: sibi exemplum sumere ex aliquo or exemplum capere de aliquo
    • to take pleasure in a thing: laetitiam capere or percipere ex aliqua re
    • to be vexed about a thing: dolorem capere (percipere) ex aliqua re
    • to take courage: animum capere, colligere
    • to be touched with pity: misericordia moveri, capi (De Or. 2. 47)
    • the house is not large enough for all: domus non omnes capit (χωρειν)
    • to take food: cibum sumere, capere
    • let the consuls take measures for the protection of the state: videant or dent operam consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat (Catil. 1. 2. 4)
    • to take up one's arms: arma capere, sumere
    • to occupy a position (with troops): capere, occupare locum
    • to capture horses: capere equos
    • to take, storm a town: oppidum capere, expugnare
    • to take to flight: fugam capessere, capere
    • to take a person alive: capere aliquem vivum
    • to capture a boat: navem capere, intercipere, deprehendere
    • (ambiguous) bare-headed: capite aperto (opp. operto)
    • (ambiguous) with head covered: capite obvoluto
    • (ambiguous) to be blind: oculis captum esse (vid. sect. IV. 6., note auribus, oculis...)
    • (ambiguous) to be affected by disease in every limb; to be paralysed: omnibus membris captum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be overcome by sleep: somno captum, oppressum esse
    • (ambiguous) to recklessly hazard one's life: in periculum capitis, in discrimen vitae se inferre
    • (ambiguous) to be out of one's mind: mente captum esse, mente alienata esse
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with love: amore captum, incensum, inflammatum esse, ardere
    • (ambiguous) to subtract something from the capital: de capite deducere (vid. sect. XII. 1, note Notice too...) aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to condemn some one to death: capitis or capite damnare aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to repeal a death-sentence passed on a person: capitis absolvere aliquem
    • (ambiguous) Solon made it a capital offence to..: Solo capite sanxit, si quis... (Att. 10. 1)
    • (ambiguous) to suffer capital punishment: supplicio (capitis) affici